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Hookuaaina Rebuilding Lives From The Ground Up

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Hoʻokuaʻāina Blog

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Hoʻokuaʻāina Blog

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Hoʻokuaʻāina Blog

Letter from the Director – July 21st, 2020

Drone shot of Hoʻokuaʻāina

Aloha Mai Kākou,

I hope everyone is enjoying their summer! My last newsletter over three months ago was quite dire regarding the need for us all to be socially responsible in the face of mitigating COVID 19 with the mindset of preparing for the worst and hoping for the best. I think it safe to say that while we have indeed been impacted by this pandemic, we are moving through it far better than what has taken place in many other parts of the world. We still need to be vigilant and work through the negative fallout, but can indeed be thankful and commend ourselves for our response. Mahalo ke Akua!

While many businesses and organizations had to shut down due to the circumstances of COVID 19, we actually became busier than ever. As an essential service and the largest producer of kalo on the island of Oʻahu, we focused more keenly on ramping up our production efforts. For safety reasons, we ceased making poi and hosting groups but kept our staff working and through stimulus money hired 14 temporary interns for eight weeks who helped us in the effort to grow more food. We indeed experienced a significant rise in demand for kalo and, through the support and partnership with other organizations, sought to help our community by feeding people, donating kalo, and giving out thousands of huli for others to plant. We also continued to maintain our education program and connection with our partnering schools and students through outreach and online learning, and because our amazing Cassie Nichols thought it was time, she, along with the help of Michele and Dani, redid our website! In spite of the uncertainty of how to navigate and move forward during this time, we commenced with our Ahupua’a Systems Apprenticeship Program in partnership with Windward Community College, and on June 8th welcomed 13 participants from four of our Windward highschools. We will be working with them for the next two years providing them a place to learn and work while supporting them through their post-high educational journey. Like everyone, we’ve also been adjusting to virtual communicating and learning. I must confess, I long to return to the pre-zoom call days and not having to subject people to hearing my voice or seeing my face online! My continued apologies.

As we all know, seasons change. For three years we’ve had the privilege of having Dani Espiritu as our Education Specialist. She is an amazing teacher who not only developed relationships with so many schools, teachers and students, but also lives out her values, the same that Hoʻokuaʻāina seeks to embody, through her teaching and manner. In June, she transitioned out of her position with us as a staff member to finish her doctoral dissertation. We will be forever grateful to her many contributions and she will be greatly missed, yet will always be a part of our Hoʻokuaʻāina ʻohana.

As Dani transitioned out, we knew it would be extremely difficult to fill her shoes. Instead of trying to hire for her position, we created a new position- Education and Outreach Coordinator. We are pleased to announce the hiring of Makana Wilhelm, a recent graduate from the Hawaiian Studies and Language program at UH Hilo. Makana brings to the team fresh and innovative perspectives and ideas to engage with our community. She is helping to navigate the challenges of virtual learning and our connection with the schools and community groups we have built relationships with who have not been able to visit us physically during this time. In addition, she adds greater depth to our Hawaiian culture and language foundation of teaching as well as her intimate understanding of the mission and purpose of Hoʻokuaʻāina. We believe she will challenge us and help us grow as an organization.

We are so looking forward to the time when we can have groups return and make poi again. Until things open up and we are able to do so, please continue to engage with us on our social media sites @hookuaaina. Connecting with us in this manner means so much because in-person relationship (pilina) and experiential engagement are some of our most important values. If we canʻt meet face to face, at least we can connect in this manner. E mālama ʻoe i kou kino! (take care of your health)

Aloha no,
Dean

Education and Outreach Update: July 2020

Written By Makana Wilhelm – Education and Outreach Coordinator

Kilo and Kalo event at Hui Mālama o ke Kai with Mālama Honua PCS and Blanche Pope Elementary

Aloha nui e ka mea heluhelu, 

With schools closing down in March because of COVID-19, we wanted to find ways to continue connecting with our students while they were stuck at home. In our Kupuohi program, many of the schools visit 4 times during the year with the final quarter being the culminating lesson where students get a chance to kuʻi the kalo they have been caring for all year long. It is the most exciting of the 4 visits and the one returning students look forward to the most. You can imagine their disappointment when all of the schools had to cancel their final visit for the year. In total, 19 school visits were canceled due to COVID. Because we have worked hard to build these connections with the students and their families, we chose to find creative ways to continue connecting with our students and teachers in the Kupuohi program. We quickly shifted our focus to create virtual learning opportunities through live feeds with our staff so keiki could talk to familiar faces on the farm. Several tutorial videos were created by staff demonstrating the various tasks around kalo cultivation. A fun virtual farm tour was produced that the keiki really enjoyed with their ʻohana.  All of these helped us to strengthen the relationship already established throughout the year and also make the best of a tragic situation. 

Join us as we give you a tour of the farm at Kapalai where we grow our kalo in addition to other crops and where we run all programming for our non-profit Hoʻokuaʻāina.

 Aside from school groups being canceled, it was pretty much business as usual for our staff and interns. Deemed an essential service during the COVID crisis, Hoʻokuaʻāina continued to work hard to supply our community with kalo. Without our normal school and community group visits, we have had an opportunity to really reflect on how essential growing kalo is. The demand for kalo has doubled in the past 3 months which has been record breaking for us, so much so that we had to stop taking individual orders for a few weeks in order for the patches to catch up. After each bountiful harvest, we have had more than enough huli (kalo cuttings for replanting) to share with farmers, keiki, and ʻohana who are eager to plant kalo in their backyards.

Meakala shows simple ways to plant kalo (huli) in your home garden or in a pot if you don’t have space in the ground.

One of the incredible outcomes of the crisis was that we were able to donate over one thousand pounds of kalo (thanks to the Consuelo Foundation and the Omidyar Foundation) directly to the students and families of Mālama Honua PCS and Blanche Pope Elementary. Along with the cooked kalo, we provided families with huli (kalo cuttings for planting) and an observation journal created by our team called “Kilo with Kapalili” for keiki to track the growth of their kalo and to build a relationship with their environment through kilo (scientific observation). In the month of May, we gave away over 3,000 huli to families from every moku (district) on Oʻahu. The response and gratitude we experienced from the recipients was overwhelming. We witnessed how empowering it is for kānaka to be able to plant and eat kalo straight from their own garden which has been truly inspiring for our Hoʻokuaʻāina ʻohana. 

As for what’s next, we are still unsure what programs will look like with the ongoing pandemic. However, we are committed to continuing our attempt to connect virtually through video content, lessons, activities, and opportunities for students and the community to engage with the work here at Kapalai. 

Rachel and Keliʻa are here to share our process of fertilizing kalo at Kapalai.
Here at Kapalai, we weed a certain way to ensure that our pu’e (mounds) and our kalo can thrive. Here are some of the do’s and don’ts.

‘Ōlelo Hawai’i

In the month of June, we started to be more intentional about the implementation and usage of Hawaiian language into our everyday work life. Being a culture and ʻāina based organization, we recognize that it is important that we continue to utilize the words and phrases that our kūpuna once used to connect to their ʻāina on a daily basis. Through the Hawaiian language, we are able to deepen our understanding of Hāloa and broaden our perspective as people of Hawaiʻi. We have started with simple words that people can remember for everyday tasks and tools such as:

  • Pākeke – bucket
  • Kopalā – shovel
  • Kanu – to plant
  • Huki – to pull, harvest
  • Waele – to weed
  • Nāhelehele – weeds
  • ʻŌhule – bald (because our managers feel that it is imperative we all know how to describe Uncle Deanʻs bald head in Hawaiian when he walks by)

In addition, we have started a weekly workshop series called Papa Hāloa, led by Kumu Kaipoʻi Kelling, where moʻolelo is shared to further our understanding about kalo drawing from the pool of rich resources we have from scholars and kupuna. 

We wish to create a safe and inclusive space to continue to practice the language of this land and grow together as a community of kuaʻāina. We look forward to including the larger community once this season of COVID-19 has settled a bit. 

Program Update: July 2020

Written By Rachel Kapule – Program Coordinator

He ʻaʻaliʻi ku makani mai au; ʻaʻohe makani nana e kulaʻi. ʻŌN #507
I am a wind-resisting ʻaʻaliʻi; no gale can push me over. 

These past few months have been challenging for us all, as many of our daily routines were thrown off balance. For those in school, classes were transitioned online and students had to learn how to adapt. None of us could have anticipated or prepared for this. But despite all the adversity, our ASA pilot cohort stood firm like the ʻaʻaliʻi tree; they finished the semester strong and had officially completed their first year at Windward Community College and Hoʻokuaʻāina.

Our Ahupuaʻa Systems Apprenticeship (ASA) program was designed to educate and cultivate the next generation of people committed to living the values and practices of a once sustainable island food system. It is a collaborative opportunity for students to gain hands-on experience and earn a stipend while starting their college career at WCC. Paul and Mikey are a part of our pilot cohort that began last year. It has been amazing to watch them step into leadership positions and share their experiences with the new cohort one that began just a few weeks ago. In this new cohort, we have been blessed to have two returning interns as well as eleven strong and dedicated wahine, 13 total, committed to the program for 2 years. We’re all excited to build new relationships and grow our ʻohana even more. We’ve also been fortunate enough to hire two summer interns that fit right in with the rest of us. It definitely helps to have all these extra hands on the farm! We’ve been able to spend time on other important things that sit lower on our priority list, like building out new showers. You won’t have to run the hose across the street anymore! 

The ASA students have already had the opportunity to experience weeding, fertilizing, pulling kalo, managing orders, prepping patches, and planting grass! While we do love just having more help in the loʻi, we love even more hearing their “whys;” what drives them to be here at Hoʻokuaʻāina and to pursue a college degree. The 15 (including the 2 from the pilot year) of them are becoming a team and will go through WCC together. They’re already getting a taste of college through an online summer Ahupuaʻa course that they have enrolled in. So far, they’ve learned about the kumulipo and have been able to relate it to working with kalo. We can’t wait to see what these next two years have in store for them and see how much they grow as individuals and as a whole. 

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

Makaluhi: Our Story

It was in 2002 that our vision for Kapalai began to unfold. At that time Dean was working full time as a DOE teacher at the Hawaii Youth Correctional Facility by day and performing as a Hawaiian musician by night. I was a stay at home mom caring for our 3 girls. We were happy living in our humble home
in the Olomana subdivision which we referred to as “Beavercleaverville” and perfectly content to spend the rest of our lives there as the neighborhood was an ideal environment to raise our family. A small garden kept our table full of fresh vegetables year-round with enough abundance to share. It was a common practice for us to use the leaves from our kalo plants to invite our friends over to prepare laulau (a Hawaiian favorite) and make an imu (underground oven) to cook them in. It was inevitable that these gatherings would turn into celebrations of food, friends, and fellowship – mini neighborhood luaus in our carport. They became quite frequent, growing in numbers, to the point where soon we were outgrowing our small space.

During this period, Dean, who was an English teacher at the facility, was having difficulty connecting with his students who had no interest in the subject. He had the thought to plant some kalo right outside his classroom. What better way to connect with young Hawaiians (75% of the student population) than with a plant and food very significant to their culture? As the plants grew, so did their interest. He began to shift his subject matter to areas they might relate to such as music, breaking down rap to teach poetry, and challenging them to write their own. Suddenly they were engaged. As a reward, Dean led them in harvesting the leaves of the kalo to make their own laulau. The majority had never done so before and had no idea how this common dish was prepared. They took great pride in the fact that they grew the majority of the ingredients, prepared a delicious dish with their own hands, and had plenty to share with teachers and staff. A breakthrough had occurred.

Back to the carport…. it was through this season that an idea began to emerge. Dean would often come home after challenging days and share heartbreaking stories about the life circumstances of his students. Drugs, violence, incarcerated parents, no home, no place to shower, no one to prepare a meal, were all common themes. These kids were set up to fail from the beginning. Caught in a spiral of circumstance, just trying to survive, many of them turned to substance abuse to ease the pain. In most cases, incarceration was a much better alternative to the hopeless reality of their lives. What was the common denominator in all the stories – broken families. As we sat in our safe, privileged bubble, we began to think of our carport luaus and garden. It was so easy for Dean to connect with the kids in the growing, preparing, and eating of kalo. We asked ourselves, “What if we were able to do this at a community level, not just with the kids but with their families and community members as well?”. What if we could mimic our carport gatherings at a community level? It seemed there was some healing power to the notion of using food to gather people to encourage fellowship, building healthy relationships, and bringing hope to an otherwise hopeless situation.

THEORY OF CHANGE

For months, Dean and I found ourselves having regular discussions around this notion. There must be something that we could do that would be more impactful than the confines of his classroom. We contemplated multiplying our little garden plot a thousand times and making it accessible to struggling families in the community where we saw the greatest need. Our big “idea” or theory of change was:

  1. Create a safe, nurturing, gathering space for families to invest in productive and meaningful work so they could begin to let down their guard and feel hope.
  2. Help families connect in a space where they could form important relationships with the land, themselves and others in the community.

If our theory worked then healing would occur, self-concept would rise, and they would see their lives as having value, meaning, and purpose. Through offering this kind of activity and space, we could contribute to the restoration and rebuilding of a healthy community.

Of course, we had no idea if it would work. In fact, we had no idea about anything! All we had was a nagging notion that this was something that we ABSOLUTELY had to do. Once the idea was clear, we couldn’t let it go. We felt compelled to action in a way neither of us had ever experienced before. It did not make any sense to anyone around us. Why would we burst our perfect little “beavercleaver” bubble and risk failure for something that more qualified institutions could handle? Many wise individuals suggested that IF we were so compelled, we should join organizations with more experience who were doing similar work. But there was no reasoning with us. Events unfolded so quickly, we had no time to think about the details or to back out. Within a year, our house was sold and we were driven by a vision with no plan, direction, experience, or help. What catapulted us forward was a burning passion and unwavering faith that the God who downloaded this upon our collective hearts would be faithful to provide all the necessary means to see it through.

UNCHARTED WATERS

Our search for the right piece of property to unfold our vision took us down a path we were unprepared for. It was 2003, the year the housing market skyrocketed in what seemed like 5 minutes after we sold our house. Within 5 months the house we sold was well outside of our means and our search for a small plot of ag land from Ka’a’a’wa to Waimānalo led to one closed door after another. We moved into a 700 square foot home to caretake a church thinking it was a very temporary way for us not to spend our savings on rent. Our stay turned into 5 years! As several offers for small plots of land were rejected, we began to think we had made a very big mistake. Perhaps we should have listened to all our many concerned friends and advisors. There was just no going back.

In the spring of 2006, a friend who knew what we were looking for suggested we have a look at a property in the Kailua neighborhood, Maunawili. We had a chuckle after speaking with him knowing Maunawili was far out of reach from what we could afford but out of respect and curiosity we decided to have a look. From the moment we stepped foot on Kapalai, I had a feeling from my head to my toes, THIS WAS IT!! We could’t believe our eyes. It was far beyond anything we ever dreamed of or imagined. Although overgrown and untouched for nearly 100 years, the land seemed rich and fertile, flowing with natural springs, and perfectly suited to grow kalo. It was a beautiful kipuka (oasis) in the midst of dense residential development and seemed too good to be true. But when Ke Akua has a plan, he clears the way. That is exactly what happened over the next year. Acquiring the nearly 8 acres in the heart of Maunawili was nothing less than a miracle.

August 12th, 2007, Dean and I signed the official papers and the door opened wide for our vision to begin. Although completely at a loss as to where to begin, we trusted that if we came this far, then provision and direction would arrive. And so it did! We put in 3 years of sweat equity to remove all the rubbish that contractors had been allowed to dump onsite, build a road, put in basic infrastructure such as water, power, and storage, and cleared our first loʻi with the help of many volunteers. The ʻāina was blessed and given the name Kapunawaiolaokapalai – the living springs of Kapalai which is the old ʻili (land division) name for the area.

For the last 12 years we have been forging the way through uncharted territories, learning as we go. It has been a wild ride full of many bumps along the way. In the early years, we often found ourselves in a place of uncertainty or discouragement and the grand vision seemed so far away – unattainable. There were a few times we wondered if maybe we had lost our minds. Each time we hit a lull, without fail, a miraculous provision would drop down to lift us up and put some new wind in our sails.

In 2011, we formed the nonprofit Hoʻokuaʻāina, named by Uncle Earl Kawaʻa who during that time had become a treasured mentor and friend to help guide us in the cultivation of kalo. With a few loʻi established we were able to start part time programming with the youth transitioning out of Hawaiʻi Youth Correctional Facility. Although we didnʻt have any funding, Deanʻs former students were eager to work for the experience of doing something productive and perhaps the promise of a pepperoni pizza after. With two key advisors on board (Andrew Aoki and Kina Mahi), we slowly formulated a very clear strategic plan to begin sharing our story with potential funders and start formal programming with the focus on at-risk youth. 2014 was a breakthrough year for us as an organization. Two substantial funders, Consuelo Foundation and Office of Youth Services, partnered with us so that Dean could leave his job and become our first full time employee as a director, educator, and youth mentor/life coach. It took seven years, but we had finally arrived and were officially doing the work that we had set out to do full time.

Looking back all those years ago, sitting in our carport, contemplating the what ifs, we are so thankful we didn’t spend too much time wondering about the risk and just said yes. There is no way we could have imagined what was to unfold. Kapalai is now the gathering place we hoped it would be, reaching four thousand visitors per year. Our first official program was the Kūkuluhou Mentoring Program designed for the students who inspired us from the beginning. Today, it remains the heart of everything we do and reaches 20-30 youth ages 13-18 per year. Referrals to the program participate in nine months of weekly life skills training to build self-esteem. Since 2009, we have offered over 200 intern positions for young adults 17-24 to provide technical training and sharpen leadership skills. The Kupuohi ʻāina based education program is thriving, providing an outdoor living classroom to 1500 students annually, K-12th grade. In 6 years, our staff of 1 has grown to 9. The biggest accomplishment this year was completing the build out of the loʻi with 23 patches in production, something I wasn’t sure we would see in this lifetime. With a growing space of about 3 acres, we are able to produce around 30,000 pounds of kalo per year which helps to supplement our programming costs making us more sustainable as an organization.

2020 marks the year we take a step back as an ʻohana and makaluhi. Literally translated makaluhi means tired eyes but in this case, we use it as an adjective to describe “a period of rest or feasting which follows a prolonged season of toil” (wehewehe.org)We have certainly toiled and there is much more that lies ahead, but we are purposefully taking this year to makaluhi – to sit back a bit and gaze with satisfaction at how far we have come. As we find ourselves in the midst of a global pandemic with many uncertainties looming for our communities, one thing remains certain, Kapunawaiolaokapalai has been brought back to life after nearly a century of dormancy. What was once thriving has been revived for such a time as this and is a resource available to those seeking connection, nourishment, and restoration. For all of you who have contributed to the journey, we hope you celebrate this season of makaluhi with us. And get ready, we have only just begun!

Makaluhi (mă’-kă-lū’-hi), adj.

[From makaluhi, to be weary.] An adjective descriptive of the rest or feasting which follows a prolonged season of toil.

Parker Dictionary (Hwn to Eng)

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Hoʻonahoa (courage)

ʻAu ana ka lae o Maunauna i ka ʻino. #234
Maunauna point swims in the storm.
[Said of a courageous person who withstands the storms of life.]

He ʻaʻaliʻi kū makani mai au; ʻaʻohe makani nāna e kulaʻi. #507
I am a wind-resisting ʻaʻaliʻi plant; no gust can push me over.

He ʻaloʻalo kuāua no kuahiwi. #541
One who endured the mountain showers.
[A brave person.]

He hoʻokele waʻa no ka lā ʻino. #592
A canoe steersman for a stormy day.
[A courageous person.]

He lālā kamahele no ka lāʻau kū i ka pali. #717
A far-reaching branch of the tree standing on the cliff.
[A boast of a strong person who, like the tree on the cliff, can withstand gales and pouring rain.]

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Aloha (love & peace)

E ʻōpū aliʻi. #369
Have the heart of a chief.
[Have the kindness, generosity and even temper of a chief.]

E wehe i ka umauma i ākea. #388
Open out the chest that it may be spacious.
[Be generous and kind to all.]

He aliʻi ka laʻi, he haku na ke aloha. #532
Peace is a chief, the lord of love.
[Where peace is, there love abides also.]

He aliʻi ke aloha, he kilohana e paʻa ai. #536
Love is like a chief, the highest prize to hold fast to.

He aliʻi ke aloha, he ʻohu no ke kino. #537
Love is chiefly, an adornment for the body.
[Uttered by Hiʻiaka in a chant to the sister of Lohiʻau.]

He ʻohu ke aloha, ʻaʻohe kuahiwi kau ʻole.#852
Love is a mist, there is no mountaintop that it does not settle upon.
[Love comes to all.]

He ʻolina leo kā ke aloha. #862
A joyousness is in the voice of love.
[Love speaks in a gentle and joyous voice, no in harshness or gruffness.]

He pūnāwai kahe wale ke aloha. #936
Love is a spring that flows freely.
[Love is without bounds and exists for all.]

Haʻahaʻa (humility)

#284 E hoʻi e peʻe i ke ōpū weuweu me he moho la. E ao o haʻi ka pua o ka mauʻu iā ʻoe.
Go back and hide among the clumps of grass-like the wingless rail. Be careful not to break even a blade of grass.
[Return to the country to live a humble life and leave no trace to be noticed and followed. So said the chief Kealiʻiwahamana to his daughter when he was dying. Later used as advice to a young person not to be aggressive or show off.]

#361 E noho iho i ke ōpū weuweu, mai hoʻokiʻekiʻe.
Remain among the clumps of grasses and do not elevate yourself.
[Do not put on airs, show off, or assume an attitude of superiority.]

#367 E ʻoluʻolu i ka mea i loaʻa.
Be contented with what one has.

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Hoʻokipa (hospitality)

#518 He ʻai leo ʻole, he ʻīpuka hāmama.
Food unaccompanied by a voice, a door always open.
[Said about the home of a hospitable person. The food is eaten without hearing a complaint from the hosts, and the door is always open to all visitors.]

#858 He ola i ka leo kāhea.
There is life in a [hospitable] call.
[A call of friendly hospitality gives cheer to the traveler.]

#869 He ʻōpū hālau.
A house-like stomach.
[A heart as big as a house. Said of a person who is kind, gracious, and hospitable.]

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Favorites of Ho‘okua‘āina

Ho‘okua‘āina Core Lessons

Nani ke kalo *
Beautiful the taro/The taro is beautiful.

Aloha Kekahi i Kekahi *
Love one another

Ua ola loko i ke aloha. #2836
Love gives life within.
[Love is imperative to one’s mental and physical welfare.]

Huli ka lima i lalo, ola *
Turn the hands down, life. 

He aliʻi ka ʻāina; he kauwā ke kanaka. #531
The land is a chief; man is its servant.
[The land has no need for man, but man needs the land and works it for a livelihood.]

Uwē ka lani, ola ka honua. #2888
When the sky weeps, the earth lives.
[When it rains the earth revives.]

He waʻa he moku, he moku he waʻa. *
A canoe is an island, an island is a canoe.

ʻAʻohe hana nui ke alu ʻia. #142
No task is too big when done together by all. 

Ma ka hana ka ʻike. #2088
In working one learns.

ʻAʻohe pau ka ʻike i ka hālau hoʻokahi. #203
All knowledge is not learned in one school.
[One can learn from many sources.]

E lawe i ke aʻo a mālama, a e ʻoi mau ka naʻauao. #328
Take what you have learned and apply it and your wisdom will increase.

ʻĀina Momona. *
Fat, fertile, rich land.

Hele nō ka ʻalā, hele nō ka lima. #752
The rock goes, the hand goes.
[To make good poi, the freehand must work in unison with the poi pounder. Keep both hands working to do good work.]

Na ke kanaka mahiʻai ka imu ō nui. #2239
The well-filled imu belongs to the man who tills the soil.

ʻŌnipaʻa.  #2521
Stand firm.
[Motto of Liliʻuokalani]

Hoʻomau *
To persevere

Lōkahi *
Unity, balance, connection to a spiritual force, oneself, others, and the land

Kūlia i ka nuʻu.  #1913
Strive to reach the highest.
[Motto of Queen Kapiʻolani.]

ʻAʻohe lolena i ka wai ʻōpae.  #178
There must be no slackness when one gathers shrimp in time of a freshet.
[Let there be no slackers when there is work to be done. Lazy people don’t get anywhere.]

Maiau Kahana, Maiau Ka Loaʻa *
Neat work, neat results

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

*Indicates those not found in the puke ʻŌlelo Noʻeau

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Hana Pono (working hard)

Aia ke ola i ka hana. #57
Life is in labor.
[Labor produces what is needed.]

Aia nō ka pono, ʻo ka hoʻohuli i ka lima i lalo, ʻaʻole ʻo ka hoʻohuli i luna. #71
That is what it should be–to turn the hands palms down, not palms up.
[No one can work with the palms of his hands turned up. When a person is always busy, he is said to keep his palms down.]

ʻAi nō i kalo moʻa. #83
One can eat cooked taro,
[The work is done; one can sit at ease and enjoy himself.]

ʻAʻohe hana nui ke alu ʻia. #142
No task is too big when done together by all.

ʻAʻohe loaʻa i ka noho wale. #173
Nothing is gained by idleness.

ʻAʻohe mea nāna e hoʻopūhili, he moho no ka lā makani. #189
There is no one to interfere, for he is a messenger for the windy day.
[Said in admiration of a person who lets nothing stop him from carrying out the task entrusted to him.]

ʻAʻohe puʻu kiʻekiʻe ke hōʻāʻō ʻia e piʻi. #209
No cliff is so tall that is cannot be scaled.
[No problem is too great when one tries hard to solve it.]

ʻAʻohe ʻulu e loaʻa i ka pōkole o ka lou. #213
No breadfruit can be reached when the picking stick is too short.
[There is no success without preparation.]

E ala! E alu! E kuilima! #258
Up! Together! Join hands!
[A call to come together to tackle a given task.]

E ala, e hoa i ka malo. #259
Get up and gird your loincloth.
[A call to rise and get to work.]

E hana mua a paʻa ke kahua ma mua o ke aʻo ʻana aku iā haʻi. #276
Build yourself a firm foundation before teaching others.

E hōʻike mai ana ka lāʻau a ke kia manu. #287
The stick of the birdcatcher will tell.
[We will know how successful one is by what he produces. One knew whether a bird catcher was successful by counting the birds on his gummed stick.]

E hoʻokanaka. #290
Be a man.

E hume i ka malo, e hoʻokala i ka ihe. #299
Gird the loin cloth, sharpen the spear.
[A call to prepare for war or to prepare for the project at hand.]

E kanu i ka huli ʻoi hāʻule ka ua. #316
Plant the taro stalks while there is rain.
[Do your work when the opportunity affords.]

E kaupē aku nō i ka hoe, a kō mai. #319
Put forward the paddle and draw it back.
[Go on with the task that is started and finish it.]

E kuahui like i ka hana. #323
Let everybody pitch in and work together.

E kuʻi ka māmā a loaʻa ʻo Kaʻōhele. #326
Let your fastest runners run in relay to catch Kaʻōhele.
[Let us make every effort to attain our goal. Kaʻōhele was a chief and warrior and in his day, there was none swifter than he. Is was only by running in relay that he was caught and killed.]

E lauhoe mai nā waʻa; i ke kā, i ka hoe; i ka hoe, i ke kā; pae aku i ka ʻāina. #327
Everybody paddle the canoes together; bail and paddle, paddle and bail, and the shore is reached.
[Pitch in with a will, everybody, and the work is quickly done.]

E mālama o pā i ke leo. #350
Be careful lest you be struck by the voice.
[Be careful not to do something that will lead to a scolding.]

E pūpūkahi. #376
Be of one clump.
[Be united in thought.]

E waikahi ka pono i mānalo. #384
It is well to be united in thought that all may have peace.

Hāʻawe i ke kua; kiʻi i ke alo. #401
A burden on the back; a babe in the arms.
[Said of a hard-working woman who carries a load on her back and a baby in her arms.]

Hana a lau a lau ke aho, a laila loaʻa ka iʻa kāpapa o ka moana. #446
Make four hundred times four hundred fish lines before planning to go after the fighting fish of the sea.
[Be well prepared for a big project.]

Hana a mikiʻoi, lawe a ʻauliʻi. #447
Be deft ad dainty.
[Said to young people: Be neat, sweet, and clever — not crude and blundering.]

Hanuʻu ke kai i Mokuola. #473
The sea recedes at Mokuola.
[Now is the opportune time to venture forth.]

He ʻai e kāhela ai ka ʻūhā. #515
An eating that spreads the intestines.
[The enjoyment of a good meal when labor is finished and all is at peace.]

He lani i luna, he honua i lalo. #718
Heaven above, Earth beneath.
[Said of a person who cultivates harmony on his property, he is sure of his own security. The sky is above him and the Earth is the foundation beneath his feet.]

Hele nō i ka hola iʻa i ka lā. #751
Fish poison should be used in the daytime.
[Greater efficiency is achieved in the daytime.]

He ola na ka ʻōiwi, lawe aʻe nō a ʻai haʻaheo. #860
A life made by the native, [one can] take and eat proudly.
[When one has earned his own livelihood he can take his food and eat it with pride.]

He pūkoʻa kani ʻāina. #932
A coral reef grows into an island.
[A person beginning in a small way gains steadily until he becomes firmly established]

He pūkoʻa kū no ka moana. #933
A large rock standing in the sea.
[Said of a person who is unchangeable and very determined.]

Malia paha he iki ʻunu, paʻa ka pōhaku nui ʻaʻole e kaʻa. #2125
Perhaps it is a small stone that can keep the big rock from rolling down.

O ke kahua mamua, mahope ke kūkulu. #2459
The site [foundation] first, and then the building

‘U‘uku ka hana, ‘u‘uku ka loa‘a. #2884
Little work, little gain.
[You reap what you sow. If you give a little do not expect a large return.]

Akahele (being cautious)

E ʻau mālie i ke kai pāpaʻu, o pakī ka wai a pula ka maka. #267
Swim quietly in shallow water lest it splash into the eyes.
[A cautioning where one is not sure of conditions.]

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Aʻo (teaching and learning)

ʻAʻohe pau ka ʻike i ka hālau hoʻokahi. #203
All knowledge is not taught in the same school.
[One can learn from many sources.]

E hoʻōki i ka hoʻina wale, o hōʻino ʻia mai ke kumu. #291
One should never go home without [some knowledge] lest his teacher be criticized.

E kuhikuhi pono i nā au iki a me nā au nui. #325
Instruct well in the little and the large currents of knowledge.
[In teaching, do it well; the small details are as important as the large ones.]

E lawe i ke aʻo a mālama, a e ʻoi mau ka naʻauao. #328
He who takes his teachings and applies them increases his knowledge.

ʻEliʻeli kūlana o ʻĀinaʻike. #339
Profound is the nature of ʻĀinaʻike.
[Refers to a person respected for the depth of his knowledge.]

He ipu kāʻeo. #643
A full calabash.
[A knowledgeable person. Also expressed ʻūmeke kāʻeo.]

He kāʻeʻaʻeʻa pulu ʻole no ka heʻenalu. #649
An expert on the surfboard who does not get wet.
[Praise of an outstanding surfer, or expert in their field.]

He kawa ia naʻu i lele a ʻopu. #679
[That is] a diving place in which I dived without making a splash.
[Said of something that is easy to do because one is accustomed to doing it.]

He lawaiʻa no ke kai pāpaʻu, he pōkole nō ke aho. He lawaiʻa no ke kai hohonu, he loa ke aho. #725
A fisherman of the shallow sea uses only a short line; a fisherman of the deep has a long line.
[A person whose knowledge is shallow does not have much. But he whose knowledge is great, has much.]

Akamai (wisdom)

He noio ʻaʻe ʻale no ke kai loa. # 844
A noio that treads over the billows of the distant sea.
[An expression of admiration for a person outstanding in wisdom and skill. The noio is a small tern.]

Hoʻonaʻauao (general teachings)

ʻAʻa i ka hula, waiho ka hilahila i ka hale. #2
When one wants to dance the hula, let bashfulness be left at home

Aia i ka ʻōpua ke ola: he ola nui, he ola laulā, he ola hohonu, he ola kiʻekiʻe. #42
Life is in the clouds: great life, broad life, deep life, elevated life.
[The reader of omens knows by their shape and color whether clouds promise rain and prosperity, or warn of disaster.]

Aia ke ola i ka waha; aia ka make i ka waha. #60
Life is in the mouth; death is in the mouth.
[Spoken words can enliven, spoken words can destroy.]

Ako ʻē ka hale a paʻa, a i ke komo ʻana mai o ka hoʻoilo, ʻaʻole e kulu i ka ua o Hilinaʻehu. #100
Thatch the house beforehand so when winter comes it will not leak in the shower of Hilinaʻehu.
[Do not procrastinate; make preparations for the future now.]

Aloha mai nō, aloha aku: ʻo ka huhū ka mea e ola ʻole ai. #113
When love is given, love should be returned; anger is the thing that gives no life.

ʻAʻohe hana i nele i ka uku. #141
No deed lacks a reward.
[Every deed, good or bad, receives its just reward.]

ʻAʻohe loko maikaʻi i nele i ka pānaʻi. #177
No kind deed has ever lacked its reward.

ʻAʻohe mea koe ma kūʻono. #187
Nothing remains in the corners.
[Said of one who is extremely generous, giving freely without reservation.]

ʻAʻohe mea make i ka hewa; make nō i ka mihi ʻole. #188
[No one has ever died for mistakes made, only because they did not repent.]

ʻAohe pilo uku. #205
No reward is a trifle.
[Even a small gift is appreciated.]

ʻAʻohe uʻi hele wale o Kohala. #211
No youth of Kohala goes empty-handed.
[Said in praise of people who do not go anywhere without a gift or a helping hand.]

E ʻai i ka mea i loaʻa. #251
What you have, eat.
[Be satisfied with what you have.]

E nihi ka helena i ka uka o Puna; mai pūlale i ka ʻike a ka maka. #360
Go quietly in the upland of Puna; do not let anything you see excite you.
[Watch your step and do not let the things you see lead you into trouble. There is an abundance of flowers and berries in the uplands of Puna and it is thought that picking any on the trip up to the volcano will result in being caught in heavy rains; the picking is left until the return trip. Also said to loved ones to imply, “Go carefully and be mindful.”]

He iʻa no ka moana, he aho loa kū i ke koʻa. #612
A fish of the deep sea requires a long line that reaches the sea floor.
[In order to obtain good position, one must prepare.]

He ʻike ʻana ia i ka pono. #620
It is a recognizing of the right thing.
[One has seen the right thing to do and has done it.]

He lohe ke ola, he kuli ka make. #766
To hear is life, to turn a deaf ear is death.
[It pays to heed sound advice.]

He manu hānai ke kanaka na ka moe. #802
Man is like a pet bird belonging to the realm of sleep.
[Dreams are very important. By them, one is guided to good fortune and warned of misfortune. Like a pet bird, man is taken care of.]

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Relating to ʻĀina (land)

Ēwe hānau o ka ʻāina. #387
Natives of the land.
[People who were born and dwelt on the land.]

Hāhai nō ka ua i ka ululāʻau. #405
Rain always follows the forest.
[The rains are attracted to forest trees. Knowing this, Hawaiians hewed only the trees that were needed.]

Hānau ka ʻāina, hānau ke aliʻi, hānau ke kanaka. #466
Born was the land, born were the chiefs, born were the common people
[The land, the chiefs, and the commoners belong together.]

Hawaiʻi kuauli. #501
Hawaiʻi with verdant country.

He aliʻi ka ʻāina, he kauwā ke kanaka. #531
The land is a chief, man is her servant.
[The land has no need for man, but men need the land and cultivated her for a livelihood of abundance.]

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Relating to Kalo (Taro) & Mahiʻai (Farming)

ʻAi nō i kalo moʻa. #83
One can eat cooked taro,
[The work is done; one can sit at ease and enjoy himself.]

Eia ua lani a Hāloa i pili ai ka hanu i ke kapu. #308
Here is a chief descended from Hāloa, whose kapu makes one hold his breath in dread.
[A complement to a chief. To be able to trace descent from Hāloa, an ancient chief, was to be of very high rank from remote antiquity.]

E kāmau iho i ka hoe a pae aku i ke kula. #315
Dip in the paddle till you reach the shore.
[Keep dipping your finger in the poi until you have had your fill.]

E kanu meaʻai, o nānā keiki i kā haʻi. #317
Plant edible food plants lest your children look with longing at someone else’s.

E piʻi ana kahi poʻe, e iho ana kahi poʻe. #372
Some folks go up, some go down.
[While the fingers of some are in the poi bowl, the fingers of others are at the mouth.]

He kalo paʻa. #666
Unpounded taro.
[A spinster or a bachelor.]

E kanu i ka huli ʻoi hāʻule ka ua. #316
Plant the taro stalks while there is rain.
[Do your work when the opportunity affords.]

He kanu Māhoemua, he kalo pū’ali. #671
When one plants in the month of Māhoemua (Hilinaʻehu), they will have irregularly shaped taro.

He keiki aloha nā mea kanu. #684
Beloved children are the plants.
[It is said of farmers that their plants are like beloved children, receiving much love, attention and care.]

Hele nō ka ʻalā, hele nō ka lima. #752
The rock goes, the hand goes.
[To make good poi, the free hand must work in unison with the poi pounder. Keep both hands working to do good work.]

He māʻona ʻai a he māʻona iʻa ko ka noanoa. #806
The commoner is satisfied with food and fish.
[The commoner has no greater ambition than success in farming and fishing.]

He meheuheu mai nā kūpuna mai. #817
Habits acquired from the ancestors; such as fishing, farming – sciences that cultivate abundance.

He poʻo ulu ko nā mea kanu. #914
Plants have heads that will grow again.
[An assurance that if you break off the top of a plant, it will put forth a new one.]

I maikaʻi ke kalo i ka ʻohā. #1232
The goodness of the taro is judged by the young plant it produces.
[Parents are often judged by the behavior of their children]

Ke kalo paʻa o Waiahole* #1735
The hard taro of Waiahole.

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

Wai (Fresh Water)

Ua (Rain)

ʻĀpuakea

This is a general rain for Koʻolaupoko. Especially Kailua, Waimānalo and Kāneʻohe. ʻĀpuakea was a very beautiful woman, that out of jealousy perhaps, Hiʻiaka turned into rain.

 “The ʻĀpuakea rain of Koʻolaupoko was named after ʻĀpuakeanui, the most beautiful woman in Kailua from the moʻolelo of the goddess Hiʻiakaikapoliopele.”

(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao xvi)

“‘Āpuakea. Rain associated with Hāna, Maui, and with Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu, and found in other areas. Also the name of a place in Kāneʻohe, Oʻahu”

(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 4)

“Rain of Kailua, Oʻahu

7. E ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Kui ʻia mai nā ʻāhihi
Na ka Malanai e lawe mai
I wehi i ʻohu no Kalani
O ʻĀpuakea rain

The ʻāhihi blossoms are to be strung
The Malanai wind will bring them
As a decoration, an adornment for the chief

From the song “Pela kapu o Kakae” by the Kawaihau Glee Club.
Hawaiian source: Holstein 33.
English trans. By author.

8. “Akā, ʻo kaʻu wahi ʻai naʻe, aia lā i ka ua ʻĀpuakea o Kailua.”

“But the food I was is there in the ʻĀpuakea rain of Kailua.”

Said by Hiʻiakaikapoliopele, referring to the lūʻau leaves broiled by Kaʻanahau.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 450.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 420.” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 6)

Rain of Kekele, luluku, and Maluaka, Oʻahu

9. “No kēlā ino mai ʻo ʻĀpuakeanui i loaʻa mai ai kēlā ua kaulana o Kailua e hele mai ai a haluku iho i ka ulu hala o Kekele me Luluku, ʻo ia hoʻi ka ua ʻĀpuakea, i holo ma ko ke mele, penei:

Hele haʻaheo ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Holo ʻaui i ke kai o Maluaka ē, i laila
Kaʻa ʻōlelo ka ua i luna o ka hala
Ke poʻo o ka hala o ʻĀhulimanu

From that name, ʻĀpuakeanui, came the name of the famous rain of Kailua that pummels the hala groves of Kekele and Luluku, namely the ʻĀpuakea, which goes like this in song:

The ʻĀpuakea rain moves proudly along
Slipping off into the sea of Maluaka, ah, there
Words are spoken by the rain on the hall
The uppermost hala of ʻĀhulimanu

From the legend of Hiʻiakaikapoliopele.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 146.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 137-38.
Note: Hoʻoulumāhiehie says that “ʻĀpuakeanui” is the name of a woman who was considered the most beautiful in all of Kailua, Oʻahu.

Rain of Koʻolau, Oʻahu

10. E hoʻi e ka uʻi o Koʻolau
ʻOiai ua malu nā pali
ʻO ka neʻe a ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Kāhiko i ke oho o ka palai

Let the youth of Koʻolau return home
For the cliffs are shaded
The creeping of the ʻĀpuakea rain
That adorns the fronds of the palai ferns

From the song “Pali Koolau.”
Hawaiian source: Holstein 74.
English trans. by author.

11. Aloha wale ka leo ua makani
Ka leo heahea o ka ua ʻĀpuakea
E hea ana i ke ao makani kualau

So beloved is the windy, rainy voice
The calling voice of the ʻĀpuakea rain
Calling to the windy kualau rain cloud

From an affectionate greeting by Kahelekūlani to her child.
Hawaiian source: Kaualilinoe, “Ka moolelo” 11/12/1870.
English trans. by author. Additional source: Kaualilinoe, “Legend” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 89).

Kapuaʻikanaka

“2. I ia wā ʻo ia i ʻike aku ai ia ka hele kawewe ʻana aʻe a ka ua i Pālāwai….I kēia wā i paeaea aʻe ai ʻo ia i kēia kau e pili ana i ke kāne, iā Kaʻanahau, a iā Pele nō hoʻi.
Kuʻu kāne i ke ala pili o Mahinui
Mai ka ua Kapuaʻikanaka i Pālāwai
Ka ua o Kailua i kai ē

At that point, she recognized the thrumming rain of Pālāwai….At this time, she presented the following chant about Kaʻanahau, which also pertained to Pele.
My man of the clinging path of Mahinui
From the [Kapuaʻikanaka] rain of Pālāwai that follows like footsteps
The rain of Kailua by the sea

From the legend of Hiʻiakaikapoliopele. Kaʻanahau of Kailua, Oʻahu, was Hiʻiaka’s lover.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 154.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 145.” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 68)

Kuahine

“…ʻO ka ua Kuahine, ʻo ka ua ia mai Kailua a hiki i ʻUalakaʻa.

The ua Kuahine is the rain from Kailua to ʻUalakaʻa.

(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 278)

Akana, C. L. and Gonzalez, K. (2015). Hānau Ka Ua: Hawaiian Rain Names. Kamehameha Publishing: Honolulu.

Pōpōkapa

Ka ua popo kapa is a soft, gentle rain of Maunawili and Ka Nuku o Nuʻuanu (hairpin lookout turn). This is a gentle rain that still makes us “popo” our “kapa.” It makes us roll up our clothes bundles so they won’t get wet. This is a vital rain to replenish our aquifer. Maunawili sits upon our aquifer.

KAHAWAI (STREAMS)

“Seven large streams begin as springs and tributaries on slopes in the Koʻolau Range, on Aniani Nui Ridge, and on Olomana, and then cross Maunawili Valley, carrying water to every tributary valley and lowland plain in the catchment. Clockwise from the south, these streams include ʻAinoni, Maunawili, ʻŌmaʻo, Palapū, Kahanaiki, Olomana, and Makawao. At least fifty springs – forty-three seasonal and seven perennial – recharge the streams, which eventually join Maunawili Stream today, to flow northeast through Kawainui Marsh and empty into Kailua Bay”

(Brennan & Allen, 2009, p. 73)

Brennan, P. and Allen, J. (2009). Life Along the Streams in Maunawili. In Kailua. (pp. 73-86) Kailua Historical Society.

PUNAWAI / WAI HŪ (SPRINGS)

Kapunawaiolaokapalai
The name of the ʻāina Hoʻokuaʻāina stewards is Kapunawaiolaokapalai, the living, lifegiving, healing spring of Kapalai.

Pikoakea
Spring found just below Awāwaloa. “The piko, the source of clean pure water that feeds the streams”

(Piliāmoʻo as cited in Saffery, 2009, p. 45)

Saffery, M. (2009). Pikoakea. In Kailua. (pp. 44-49). Kailua Historical Society.

LOKO IʻA (FISHPONDS)

…The eyes looked with eagerness on the plain of Alele where the chief Kakuhihewa vacationed. It was beautiful from the flats of Alaala to the coast of Puunaʻo and Kalaeohua, from the place of the drifting sea weed of Kuahine of the place of the lipoa sea weed of Oneawa. We saw the heiau of Leleiwi; pleasant Kapaa in the mist; Halekou, the pond of fat fish; Kaluapuhi (Eel pit); Waikolu; the famous pond of Kaelepulu where Makalei, the fish attracting stick stood. The necks of the birds appeared on the pond of Kawainui among the rushes…

Huakai Makaikai i na Wahi Pana o Kini Kailua
Oahu Places: Ke Au Hou
Aug. 9, 1911
(Sterling & Summers, p. 227)

“The ahupuaʻa of Kailua and its sources of foods such as the fishing grounds for ahi at Haoʻo, the kahala fish of Poʻo, the fat fishes of the ponds of Kawainui, Kaʻelepulu and Wakahulu, and the salt of Kaluapuhi (Mokapu), belonged to Maui-hope (Second-Maui).”

Kauakahiakahaola (Kamakau)
He manawa haowale anei Keia, a Kaili a pakahawale, Kuokoa, Nov. 27, 1875

(Sterling & Summers, p. 227-228)

Sterling, E. P. & Summers, C. C. (1978). Sites of Oahu. Bishop Museum Press.

Kaʻelepulu
Ka-ʻele-pulu. Pond (former fishpond), stream, and playground, now called Enchanted Lake, Kai-lua, Oʻahu. Lit., the moist blackness.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Kawainui
“Many Waters.” A large fresh water pond in Kailua, and famous for the oopu kuia and for having once possessed the famous fish log Makalei. The oopu kuia was a large fat mud fish, caught by many people joining hands and dancing in its waters to stir up mud, when the fish would run their heads up against the people, and so were caught. The fishes would cluster very thickly against particular individuals while leaving many others untouched, when, of course, he or she, would make a good haul and fill up his calabashes rapidly. This gave rise to the common saying of the olden times, “he ili ona ia” – “attractive skin.”

Dictionary of Hawaiian Localities
Saturday Press
Oct. 6, 1883
(Sterling & Summers, p. 230)

Sterling, E. P. & Summers, C. C. (1978). Sites of Oahu. Bishop Museum Press.

Mahinui (“great strength”)
A mountain, fishpond and stream at Mōkapu, Oʻahu. Name of a legendary hero defeated by Olomana. His body was cast from Olomana to its present location near Kalāheo.

Clark, John. Hawaiʻi Place Names. 2002. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Compiled by Danielle Espiritu, Education Specialist

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Relating to Kailua

Kailua

Hawaiʻi palu lāʻī. #503
Ti-leaf lickers of Hawaiʻi.
[This saying originated after Kamehameha conquered the island of Oʻahu. The people of Kailua, Oʻahu, gave a great feast for him, not expecting him to bring such a crowd of people. The first to arrive ate up the meat, so the second group had to be content with licking and nibbling at the bits of meat that adhered to the ti leaves. In derision, the people of Oʻahu called them “ti-leaf lickers.”]

Kini Kailua, mano Kāneʻohe. #1801
Forty thousand in Kailua, four thousand in Kāneʻohe.
[A great number. Said by a woman named Kawaihoʻolana whose grandson was ruthlessly murdered by someone from either Kailua or Kāneʻohe. She declared that this many would perish by sorcery to avenge him. Another version credits Keohokauouli, a kahuna in the time of Kamehameha, for this saying. He suggested sorcery as a means of destroying the conqueror’s Oʻahu enemies.]

Mālama o ʻike i ke kaula ʻili hau o Kailua. #2118
Take care lest you feel the haubark rope of Kailua.
[Take care lest you get hurt. When braided into a rounded rope, hau bark is strong, and when used as a switch it can be painful.]

Maunawili

Ua piʻi paha i ka ʻulu o Maunawili. #2848
Gone up, perhaps, to fetch the breadfruit of Maunawili.
[A play on wili (twist, turn about).
Said of one who is confused.]

Kawainui

He lepo ka ʻai a Oʻahu, a māʻona no i ka lepo. #758
Earth is the food of Oʻahu, and it is satisfied with its earth.
[Said in derision of Oʻahu, which was said to be an earth-eating land. In olden times, an edible mud like gelatine was said to fill Kawainui Pond. The mud, which was brought hither from Kahiki in ancient days, was once served to the warriors and servants of Kamehameha as a replacement for poi.]

He ʻoʻopu kuʻia, ka iʻa hilahila o Kawainui. 866
A bashful ʻoʻopu, the shy fish of Kawainui.
[Said of a bashful person. Kawainui at Kailua was one of the largest fishponds on Oʻahu.]

Wawā ka menehune i Puʻukapele ma Kauaʻi, puoho ka manu o ka loko o Kawainui ma Oʻahu. #2920
The shouts of the menehune on Puʻukapele on Kauaʻi startled the birds of Kawainui Pond on Oʻahu.
[The menehune were once so numerous on Kauaʻi that their shouting could be heard on Oʻahu. Said of too much boisterous talking.]

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

Makani (Winds)

Malanai

Ka Malanai is the gentle (northeast, according to some) breeze associated with Kailua. This wind is said to induce lovemaking.

“Holopali is of Kaʻaʻawa and Kualoa,
Kiliua is of Waikāne,
Mololani is of Kuaaohe,
Ulumano is of Kāneʻohe,
The wind is for Kaholoakeāhole,
Puahiohio is the upland wind of Nuʻuanu,
Malanai is of Kailua,
Limu-li-puʻupuʻu comes ashore at Waimānalo,
ʻAlopali is of Pāhonu,
At Makapuʻu the wind turns…”

(Nakuina, 1990, 55)

“Malanai: a gentle breeze (Kailua, Oʻahu; Kōloa, Kauaʻi)”

(Nakuina, 1990, 134)

Nakuina, M. K. (1990). The Wind Gourd of Laʻamaomao. Kalamakū Press: Honolulu.

Kaiāulu

Also a gentle breeze, referenced in newspaper article by B. V. Kalanikuihonoinamoku.

See Kalanikuihonoinamoku, B. V. Ke Au Okoa. No Na wahi a na’Lii e makemake ai e noho ma ka wa kahiko ma ka Mokupuni o Oahu nei. 31 Iul 1865.

Original Text from Ke Au Okoa, accessed through Papakilo Database

Ka Makani Huʻe Kapa

Ka Makani Huʻe Kapa is the wind of Ka Nuku o Nuʻuanu (hairpin lookout turn). This is a strong gusty wind that “huʻe” our “kapa.” It is said to lift up our clothes because it is so gusty. This is a familiar wind to those who would frequently travel (walk) ka Nuku o Nuʻuanu on their way to and from Kona (town)

Compiled by Danielle Espiritu, Education Specialist

Ua (Rains)

ʻĀpuakea

This is a general rain for Koʻolaupoko. Especially Kailua, Waimānalo and Kāneʻohe. ʻĀpuakea was a very beautiful woman, that out of jealousy perhaps, Hiʻiaka turned into rain.

“The ʻĀpuakea rain of Koʻolaupoko was named after ʻĀpuakeanui, the most beautiful woman in Kailua from the moʻolelo of the goddess Hiʻiakaikapoliopele”.
(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao xvi)

“‘Āpuakea. Rain associated with Hāna, Maui, and with Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu, and found in other areas. Also the name of a place in Kāneʻohe, Oʻahu”.
(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 4)

Rain of Kailua, Oʻahu

E ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Kui ʻia mai nā ʻāhihi
Na ka Malanai e lawe mai
I wehi i ʻohu no Kalani
O ʻĀpuakea rain
The ʻāhihi blossoms are to be strung
The Malanai wind will bring them
As a decoration, an adornment for the chief

From the song “Pela kapu o Kakae” by the Kawaihau Glee Club.
Hawaiian source: Holstein 33. English trans. By author.

“Akā, ʻo kaʻu wahi ʻai naʻe, aia lā i ka ua ʻĀpuakea o Kailua.” “But the food I was is there in the ʻĀpuakea rain of Kailua.”

Said by Hiʻiakaikapoliopele, referring to the lūʻau leaves broiled by Kaʻanahau.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 450.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 420.” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 6)

Rain of Kekele, luluku, and Maluaka, Oʻahu

“No kēlā ino mai ʻo ʻĀpuakeanui i loaʻa mai ai kēlā ua kaulana o Kailua e hele mai ai a haluku iho i ka ulu hala o Kekele me Luluku, ʻo ia hoʻi ka ua ʻĀpuakea, i holo ma ko ke mele, penei:
….
Hele haʻaheo ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Holo ʻaui i ke kai o Maluaka ē, i laila
Kaʻa ʻōlelo ka ua i luna o ka hala
Ke poʻo o ka hala o ʻĀhulimanu

From that name, ʻĀpuakeanui, came the name of the famous rain of Kailua that pummels the hala groves of Kekele and Luluku, namely the ʻĀpuakea, which goes like this in song:
…….
The ʻĀpuakea rain moves proudly along
Slipping off into the sea of Maluaka, ah, there
Words are spoken by the rain on the hala
The uppermost hala of ʻĀhulimanu

From the legend of Hiʻiakaikapoliopele.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 146.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 137-38. Note: Hoʻoulumāhiehie says that “ʻĀpuakeanui” is the name of a woman who was considered the most beautiful in all of Kailua, Oʻahu.

Rain of Koʻolau, Oʻahu

E hoʻi e ka uʻi o Koʻolau
ʻOiai ua malu nā pali
ʻO ka neʻe a ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Kāhiko i ke oho o ka palai
Let the youth of Koʻolau return home
For the cliffs are shaded
The creeping of the ʻĀpuakea rain
That adorns the fronds of the palai ferns

From the song “Pali Koolau.”
Hawaiian source: Holstein 74.
English trans. by author.

Aloha wale ka leo ua makani
Ka leo heahea o ka ua ʻĀpuakea
E hea ana i ke ao makani kualau
So beloved is the windy, rainy voice
The calling voice of the ʻĀpuakea rain
Calling to the windy kualau rain cloud

From an affectionate greeting by Kahelekūlani to her child.
Hawaiian source: Kaualilinoe, “Ka moolelo” 11/12/1870.
English trans. by author. Additional source: Kaualilinoe, “Legend” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 89).

Akana, C. L. and Gonzalez, K. (2015). Hānau Ka Ua: Hawaiian Rain Names. Kamehameha Publishing: Honolulu.

Kapuaʻikanaka

I ia wā ʻo ia i ʻike aku ai ia ka hele kawewe ʻana aʻe a ka ua i Pālāwai….I kēia wā i paeaea aʻe ai ʻo ia i kēia kau e pili ana i ke kāne, iā Kaʻanahau, a iā Pele nō hoʻi.
Kuʻu kāne i ke ala pili o Mahinui
Mai ka ua Kapuaʻikanaka i Pālāwai
Ka ua o Kailua i kai ē

At that point, she recognized the thrumming rain of Pālāwai…At this time, she presented the following chant about Kaʻanahau, which also pertained to Pele.
My man of the clinging path of Mahinui
From the [Kapuaʻikanaka] rain of Pālāwai that follows like footsteps
The rain of Kailua by the sea

From the legend of Hiʻiakaikapoliopele. Kaʻanahau of Kailua, Oʻahu, was Hiʻiaka’s lover.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 154.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 145.” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 68)

Akana, C. L. and Gonzalez, K. (2015). Hānau Ka Ua: Hawaiian Rain Names. Kamehameha Publishing: Honolulu.

Kuahine

…ʻO ka ua Kuahine, ʻo ka ua ia mai Kailua a hiki i ʻUalakaʻa.

…The ua Kuahine is the rain from Kailua to ʻUalakaʻa.”

(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 278)

Akana, C. L. and Gonzalez, K. (2015). Hānau Ka Ua: Hawaiian Rain Names. Kamehameha Publishing: Honolulu.

Pōpōkapa

Ka ua popo kapa is a soft, gentle rain of Maunawili and Ka Nuku o Nuʻuanu (hairpin lookout turn). This is a gentle rain that still makes us “popo” our “kapa.” It makes us roll up our clothes bundles so they won’t get wet. This is a vital rain to replenish our aquifer. Maunawili sits upon our aquifer.

Compiled by Danielle Espiritu, Education Specialist

Wahi Pana (Sacred & Celebrated Places)

ʻĀLELE
(“it has flown”)

Land area in the approximate center of Kailua, Oʻahu, formerly a plain called Kula-o-ʻĀlele, a sports area.

Parker, Henry H. A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language. 1922. The Board of Commissioners of Public Archives of the Territory of Hawaiʻi.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Many stories of Kākuhihewa remind us of the prosperity and splendor during his reign. Peace prevailed throughout the island, farming and fishing provided unlimited supplies of food for all, and population and wealth increased.  The cheerful, beloved Kākuhihewa was greeted by the bravest, wisest, and most brilliant of the aristocracy of the other islands. Kākuhihewa held his residences at three locations: ʻEwa, Waikīkī, and Kailua.  All three areas were lush and well-stocked and accustomed to providing for a very large court and accompanying guests.  A large dwelling was built at ʻĀlele in Kailua that was named Pāmoa to hold court and entertain his many guests.  This area was also formerly known as Kula o ʻĀlele and was located at the center of Kailua, Oʻahu.

Retrieved from: https://apps.ksbe.edu/kaiwakiloumoku/kakuhihewa

Akana, H. (2013). Kākuhihewa.

AWĀWALOA

Peak that “marks the center of Maunawili Valley” (Piliāmoʻo as cited in Saffery, 2009, p. 45)

Saffery, M. (2009). Pikoakea. In Kailua. (pp. 44-49). Kailua Historical Society.

KAʻELEPULU

Ka-ʻele-pulu. Pond (former fishpond), stream, and playground, now called Enchanted Lake, Kai-lua, Oʻahu. Lit., the moist blackness.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press

KAILUA
(“two seas”)

The ahupuaʻa between Waimānalo and Kāneʻohe in the moku of Koʻolaupoko. Perhaps named so because of Kawainui and Kaʻelepulu, two great fishponds of the area that connect to the sea.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Kailua

…The eyes looked with eagerness on the plain of Alele where the chief Kakuhihewa vacationed. It was beautiful from the flats of Alaala to the coast of Puunaʻo and Kalaeohua, from the place of the drifting sea weed of Kuahine of the place of the lipoa sea weed of Oneawa. We saw the heiau of Leleiwi; pleasant Kapaa in the mist; Halekou, the pond of fat fish; Kaluapuhi (Eel pit); Waikolu; the famous pond of Kaelepulu where Makalei, the fish attracting stick stood. The necks of the birds appeared on the pond of Kawainui among the rushes…

Huakai Makaikai i na Wahi Pana o Kini Kailua
Oahu Places: Ke Au Hou
Aug. 9, 1911
(Sterling & Summers, p. 227)

“The ahupuaʻa of Kailua and its sources of foods such as the fishing grounds for ahi at Haoʻo, the kahala fish of Poʻo, the fat fishes of the ponds of Kawainui, Kaʻelepulu and Wakahulu, and the salt of Kaluapuhi (Mokapu), belonged to Maui-hope (Second-Maui).”

Kauakahiakahaola (Kamakau)
He manawa haowale anei Keia, a Kaili a pakahawale, Kuokoa, Nov. 27, 1875
(Sterling & Summers, p. 227-228)
Sterling, E. P. & Summers, C. C. (1978). Sites of Oahu. Bishop Museum Press.

The area that included what is now Kāneʻohe and Kailua, which was rich in fishponds and tillable lands, was the seat of the ruling chiefs of Koʻolaupoko (Short Koʻolau) which was the southern portion of the windward coast.

(Handy et. al, p. 272)

Kailua

Kailua was the home of the aliʻi Kualiʻi in the early 18th century, and presumably had been the seat of hte high chiefs of Koʻolaupoko from very early times. The beach, the bay, and living conditions were and are very attractive. Waimanalo and Kaneʻohe [sp], both rich farming areas, were neighboring. Access to the northern districts of Koʻolaupoko was easy over the waters of the great indentation in the coast now called Kaneʻohe Bay, which extends from Kaneʻohe harbord along the whole Koʻolaupoko coast, past Heʻeia, Kahaluʻu, Kaʻalaea, Waiahole, Waikane, and Hakipuʻu to Kualoa. All these districts were rich in agricultural resources and fishing grounds, but were not attractive from teh point of view of residence.

Undoubtedly further reasons for the attractiveness of Kailua as a place of residence for an aliʻi nui with his large entourage were the great natural fishponds, Kaʻelepulu and Kawainui, and the complex of artificial salt-water ponds that are between Kailua and Kaneʻohe in the Mokapu area: Halelou, Nuʻupia, and Kaluapuhi.

Kailua must formerly have been very rich agriculturally, having one of the most extensive continuous terrace areas on Oahu, extending inland one and a half miles from the margin of Kawainui Swamp. Terraces extended up into the various valleys that run back into the Koʻolau range. There were some terraces watered by springs and a small stream from Olomana mountain along the western slope of the ridge that lies southeast of Kawainui Swamp, and another system of terraces was east of the seaward end of the ridge, watered by the stream which joins Kawainui and Kaʻelepulu Ponds. There were also terraces north of the Kawainui Pond, and several terrace areas flanked Kaʻelepulu Pond at the base of the ridge to the eastward. Much former taro land reverted to swamp when abandoned; this has since been drained.

(Handy et. al, p. 457)

Handy, E. S. C, Handy, E. G., & Pukui, M. K. 1991. Native planters in old Hawaii: Their life, lore & environment. Bishop Museum Press.

Kailua i ke Oho a ka Malanai: An Essay by Kīhei and Māpuana de Silva

de Silva, K. & M. de Silva (2017). Kailua i ke Oho o ka Malanai.

Retrieved from: http://www.hikaalani.website/uploads/3/4/9/7/34977599/kailua_i_ka_malanai_for_hweb.pdf

KAʻIWA
(“the frigate bird”)

A peak and ridge above Kaʻōhao, Kailua that is now a popular hiking spot. Named for the Hawaiian frigate bird that hunts fish because they were often seen here.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

KAPALAI

Kapalai is the name of the ʻili ʻāina where Hoʻokuaʻāina is located. The name of the ʻāina Hoʻokuaʻāina stewards is Kapunawaiolaokapalai, the living, lifegiving, healing spring of Kapalai.

An ʻili in the uplands of Kailua.

Parker, Henry H. A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language. 1922. The Board of Commissioners of Public Archives of the Territory of Hawaiʻi.

At the time of the tax assessment in Kailua in 1846, Kauha was the konohiki (land manager) who oversaw the ʻili ʻāina of Kapalai. At this time there were 6 moʻo ʻāina (parcels) in Kapalai (Silva, 2009, p. 16).

Silva, C. (2009). Kailua in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. In Kailua. (pp. 7-18). Kailua Historical Society.

KAWAINUI

Kawainui Pond

Site 370. Kawainui pond, once a large inland pond.

The pond belonged to the alii. Hauwahine was the goddess (moʻo) of this pond, as well as of Paeo pond, (Site 277 Laie, Koolauloa), where she stayed only when leaves and other refuse (amoʻo) covered that pond. At other times she departed to Kailua. The old Hawaiians at Kailua, however, insist that she never left Kawainui

McAllister
Arch. of Oahu
(Sterling & Summers, p. 230)

Here were found the finest fat mullet on this side of the island. Here also, Haumea, the goddess dwelt with the fish attracting wood, Makalei.

The road cuts through a part of the pond.

The awa fish at this pond were so tame that they were easily caught. The fish did not like persons with strong smelling skins (ili awa) and kept away from them. Otherwise they swam right up to a person in the water.

Alona, Mrs. Charles
Informant, Sept. 28, 1939
Kailua-Waimanalo
(Sterling & Summers, p. 230)

Kawainui

“Many Waters.” A large fresh water pond in Kailua, and famous for the oopu kuia and for having once possessed the famous fish log Makalei. The oopu kuia was a large fat mud fish, caught by many people joining hands and dancing in its waters to stir up mud, when the fish would run their heads up against the people, and so were caught. The fishes would cluster very thickly against particular individuals while leaving many others untouched, when, of course, he or she, would make a good haul and fill up his calabashes rapidly. This gave rise to the common saying of the olden times, “he ili ona ia” – “attractive skin.”

Dictionary of Hawaiian Localities
Saturday Press
Oct. 6, 1883
(Sterling & Summers, p. 230)

Kawainui Pond – Hauwahine

Wahineomaʻo saw two beautiful women sitting on the bank of the stream near Kawainui pond and remarked to Hiiaka, “See those beautiful women?” “Those are not real women, but lizards,” replied Hiiaka. Beacuase of Wahinemaʻo’s disbelief she said, “I will chant and if they remain where they are, then they are human, but if they vanish, they are lizards.”

Then she chanted:

Kailua is like hair tousled by the Malanai wind,
The leaves of the uki are flattened down,
You are startled as though by the voice of a bird.
You think they are human
But they are not.
That is Hau-wahine and her companion,
The supernatural women of peaceful Kailua.

When the lizard-women heard her voice, they glanced at each other as if startled and disappeared. “Now I see,” said Wahinema’o, “those are truly lizard women.” Hiiaka explained, “One, Hau-wahine belongs up here in Ka-wai-nui and is its guardian. The second belongs to the hala grove on the level place close to the stream of Kaʻele-pulu. When she returns from up here the leaves of the hala trees there turn yellow. The leaves of the uki grass and the bullrushes in the water turn yellow too. This is the sign of the presence of a lizard (moʻo). The plants round about take a yellowish hue.”

Hiiakaikapoliopele
Ka Naʻi Aupuni, Jan. 22, 1906
(Similar story in “Hiiakaikapoliopele” Hoku o Hawaii Dec. 29., 1925)
(Sterling & Summers, p. 231)

Sterling, E. P. & Summers, C. C. (1978). Sites of Oahu. Bishop Museum Press.

Edible Mud of Kawainui by Kapalaiʻula de Silva

“Samuel Kamakau writes that the lepo ‘ai of Kawainui was said to have been brought from the Pillars of Kahiki by Kauluakalana, a famous voyager who traveled extensively between the Pacific islands and its peoples.  He explains that this dirt is one and the same as ‘alaea, the ocherous earth used traditionally in medicines, dyes, and as a mineral additive to salt.  Lahilahi Webb, however, states that lepo ‘ai was completely unique unto Kawainui.  She describes it as thick and jelly-like, similar in texture to haupia.  Webb also notes that there was a kapu observed when gathering this resource.  “No one was allowed to utter a word while the diver was in the pond getting it.  If a word was spoken, ordinary mud rose up around the diver and covered him so that he died.  There was no escape” (de Silva, 2013).

de Silva, K. (2013) Edible Mud of Kawainui.

Retrieved from: https://apps.ksbe.edu/kaiwakiloumoku/node/594

For more information about Kawainui, see the following:

KONAHUANUI
(“Large fat innards”)

The tallest peak of the Koʻolau Mountain range. (3,150 feet high) above the Nuʻuanu Pali, Oʻahu. In one story a giant threw his great testicles (kona hua nui) at a woman whom he desired, but escaped him. His genitals then became the peak of Kōnāhuanui. Today the pronunciation is Konahua-nui.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

MAHINUI
(“great strength”)

A mountain, fishpond and stream at Mōkapu, Oʻahu. Name of a legendary hero defeated by Olomana. His body was cast from Olomana to its present location near Kalāheo.

Clark, John. Hawaiʻi Place Names. 2002. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

MAUNAWILI

He mele kēia o ke aloha no Maunawili
Ua hoʻokamaʻāina au i kou nani
ʻO ka noe i ka wailele i ka piʻina
O ka lā ʻālohilohi i ka wai o uka
Mākaʻikaʻi nō kāua i ka ulu hau
Hōʻolu i ka poli, hōʻoni i ke kahawai
Kū haʻaheo i luna ʻo ke Koʻolau
E hoʻi kāua e pili i ka uka o Maunawili Ua kamaʻāina au i kou nani

This is a mele of love for Maunawili
Where I have grown accustomed to your beauty
The waterfall is misty as the sunrise
Sparkles in the upland water.
We journey through hau grove
And cool our hearts, stirring the mountain stream
Koʻolau stands above
Let us be close once more in the uplands of Maunawili For I have grown accustomed to her beauty.

“Ka Uʻi o Maunawili,” words and music by David Kaʻio with Dwayne Kaulia (Hawaiian language), 1990. (Saffery, 2009, p. 87)

Saffery, M. (2009). Ka Uʻi o Maunawili. In Kailua. (pp. 87-91). Kailua Historical Society.

Ka Uʻi o Maunawili: An Essay by Kīhei de Silva (de Silva, 1990)

de Silva, K. (2017). Ka Uʻi o Maunawili.

Retrieved from: http://www.hikaalani.website/uploads/3/4/9/7/34977599/ka_ui_o_maunawili_for_hweb.pdf

For more information on Maunawili, see the following moʻolelo:

MŌKAPU

(“mō” short for “moku” as in “moku kapu” restricted island/district) This area was kapu, restricted because Kamehameha would meet his chiefs here. Point on the most Kāneʻohe side of Kailua bay that resembles a honu, turtle. The first man is also said to have been created here by Kāne and Kanaloa on the eastern part of Mololani at Mōkapu. Kāne drew the image of a human in the soil, with a body, head, arms and feet just like themselves as gods. Kanaloa then told Kāne that he did not have enough power on his own to bring the human to life. Kāne then appealed to Kū and Lono for help. Kāne then called the man to live, Kū and Lono did as well, and then the soil became a living man.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Kamākau, Moolelo o Hawaii. Chap 1.

OLOMANA

Olomana: Olomana (“forked hill”) is a beautiful mountain in Kailua, which is very distinct for its three peaks, Olomana, Pākuʻi and Ahiki. Ahiki is the peak closest to Waimānalo. Olomana is the peak closed to Kailua, and Pākuʻi is the middle peak.  

Alona, Charles. (Sterling, E.P. & Summers C. C.) Sites of Oʻahu, pg. 234. 1978. The Bishop Museum Press.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Hiehie Olomana: An Essay by Kīhei de Silva (de Silva, 2011)

de Silva, K. (2017). Hiehie Olomana.

Retrieved from: http://www.hikaalani.website/uploads/3/4/9/7/34977599/hiehie_olomana_for_hweb.pdf

For more information about Olomana see the following moʻolelo:

PIKOAKEA

Spring found just below Awāwaloa. “The piko, the source of clean pure water that feeds the streams”

(Piliāmoʻo as cited in Saffery, 2009, p. 45)

Saffery, M. (2009). Pikoakea. In Kailua. (pp. 44-49). Kailua Historical Society.

ULUMAWAO
(“growth at the forest”)

A peak in Kailua near Kawainui.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

ULUPŌ

Ancient heiau and now a historic site near Kai-lua, Oʻahu; a large open platform was sometimes attributed to Menehune. Lit., night inspiration.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

For more information about Ulupō, see:

Compiled by Danielle Espiritu, Education Specialist

Brief Timeline

Click To Download PDF

Prior to 1778 – Kailua planted primarily in kalo long before Western contact.

1831-1832 – 760 residents in Kailua. (353 males, 275 females, 61 boys, 71 girls)

1835 – 762 living in Kailua.

1846 – 749 living in Kailua.

December 1846 – Tax assessment (Kingdom of Hawaiʻi) lists 71 ʻili ʻāina in the ahupuaʻa of Kailua.

1848 – The Mahele. The ʻili ʻāina of Kawailoa in Kailua was claimed for the Crown (Kamehameha III). The remaining land was available for chiefs, land managers, and commoners.

“The Land Board received a total of 203 kuleana claims for lands in Kailua. Of these, 114 were awarded; 89 were not awarded, for a variety of reasons…The land records describe, for the 114 claims awarded, 176 actived cultivated parcels (presumably, dryland), 441 active taro pondfields (wetland), and 87 houselots. Among the 89 unawarded claims, there were 140 parcels in active cultivation, 238 taro pondfields being tended, and 61 houselots. At the time initial claims were submitted for both awarded and unawarded lands, Kailua is described as having 316 parcels in active cultivation, 679 pondfields beign tended, and 148 houselots occupied by one or more individuals”.

(Silva, 2009, p. 12)

1849 – William Jarrett purchases 670 acres in the ʻili of Maunawili, becoming the 1st private land owner in upper Maunawili Valley.

1852 – Large numbers of Chinese migrate to Hawai‘i to work on sugar plantations. Rice cultivation begins.

1855 – Henry H. Sawyer purchases 1,242 acres (all kuleana in the ʻili of Maunawili, including Jarrett’s land, as well as land in the ʻili of ʻŌmaʻo). This land becomes known as “Maunawili Ranch”.

1859 – Approx. ¼ of 255 taxpayers in Kailua were actively farming wet or dry-land kalo.

Mid-1860s – Lands leased for rice cultivation. **Likely the same lands used previously for kalo. (Tax rolls)

1865 – Cotton growing in Manulele.

1869 – Maria Hio Adams Boyd purchases Henry Sawyer’s land, 400 cattle & 14 horses.

1870 – Hakaleleponi Kapākūhaili Kalama (Kamehameha III’s royal consort) passes & her uncle, Charles Kanaʻina, inherits her land holdings in Kailua.

May 1, 1871 – Kanaʻina sells Kailua assets to Charles Coffin Harris. (Approx. $22,450)

1875 – Maria Adams Boyd and husband Edwin Harbottle Boyd own 700 cattle.

1875 – Taxes assessed for a rice mill belonging to Aho, a Chinese planter.

1875 – “…there were already ʻlarge herds of cattle and horses’”. (Brennan & Drogot, 2009, p. 182)

1876 – Reciprocity Treaty signed with U.S. Beneficial to the export of rice and sugar.

1876 – Rice mill established by Aho in Kailua. (He had 32.45 acres in possession)

1880 – At least 7 rice growers identified in Kailua.

The early 1880s – At least 10 Chinese rice growers listed in the ahupuaʻa of Kailua. (Tax assessor’s records)

July 11, 1892 – Nannie Roberta Harris Brewer Rice (daughter of Charles Harris) receives a Royal Patent for nearly 12,000 acres of land in Kailua after filing a certificate of boundary. (May 26, 1892)

1893 – Illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

1893 – The Boyd family sells Maunawili Ranch (approx. 1,200 acres) to William G. And Fannie Irwin. Cattle is a well-established industry. Irwin becomes the major landowner in upper Maunawili.
Irwin partnered with Claus Spreckels to control the processing of over ½ of Hawaiʻi’s sugar, including Waimanalo Sugar Company. (Which Irwin controlled after 1885).

 “Maunawili Ranch was located just over the Aniani Nui Ridge from Waimānalo adn the Waimanalo Sugar Company mill. The sugar cane in Waimānalo needed water, and Irwin was largely responsible for diverting water via a ditch system from Maunawili to Waimānalo”.

(Brennan, 2009, p. 60)

“Soil- and cement-lined ditches, flumes, and tunnels were developed in 1893 by W. G. Irwin to deliver water to Waimanalo Sugar Company. Today, the State maintains the ditch system for the benefit of Waimānalo farmers. (Piliāmoʻo)”.

(Brennan & Allen, 2009, p. 69)

1893-1896 – Irwin purchases additional lands in Kailua, including land in teh ʻili of Kīhuluhulu, Kaʻimi ʻAinoni, Puakea, Kaʻelepulu, Puanea, and Kalaekoa.

1895 – 10 acres of Irwin’s estate in Maunawili cleared and planted w/almost 7,000 coffee trees.

Late 1800s – Ranching enterprises, 1,000s of acres in Kailua appear on Tax Assessors records.

1908 – Over 100 acres of Irwin’s estate planted with coffee w/the mill on his Maunawili estate.

1910 – Maunawili Ranch sold to C. Brewer & Company.

1910 – Arthur Rice & Harold Castle start the earliest dairy lands in coastal Kailua.

1916 – Housing development begins in Kailua.

April 2, 1917 – Nannie Rice sells lands in Kailua to Harold K. Castle.

1924 – Castle begins his 1st housing tract along N. Kalāhea Avenue. (Named after Queen Kalama)

1924 – Campos family comes to Kailua and goes on to run larges & longest operating dairy in Kailua.

Late 1920s – Most land formerly used for rice paddies becomes pastureland.

1936 – Kalama subdivision parceled 186 lots. ($1,500 – $2,000 each)

1940 – Population of Kailua – 1,500 people.

1941 – Maunawili ranch sold by Brewer to Kaneohe Ranch. During WWII, it was used for military training.

1950 – Population of Kailua – 7,740 people.

1950s – Territory of Hawaiʻi declares Ulupō heiau as a Protected Site.

End of 1950s – Population of Kailua – over 25,000 people.

1960s – Hālaualolo heiau (near Palapū and ʻŌmaʻo streams) destroyed during development of Maunawili Estates subdivision. Water rechanneled to accommodatenew homes and roads.

1962 – Ulupō heiau designated as a State Monument.

(Silva, 2009, p. 7-17; Brennan, 2009, p. 55-71; Brennan & Allen, 2009, p. 85; Drigot, 2009, p. 102; Drigot, 2009, p. 151; Brennan & Drigot, 2009, p. 182-196)

Nakuina, M. K. (1990). The Wind Gourd of Laʻamaomao. Kalamakū Press: Honolulu.
**Translated by: Esther T. Mookini and Sarah Nākoa

Compiled by Danielle Espiritu, Education Specialist

Hookuaaina Rebuilding Lives From The Ground Up

Hoʻokuaʻāina is located in the ahupuaʻa of Kailua at Kapalai in Maunawili on the island of Oʻahu.

For more information about our programs or how you can get involved please contact us.

visit us

916E Auloa Rd.

Kailua, HI 96734

mail

P.O. Box 342146

Kailua, HI 96734

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Hookuaaina Rebuilding Lives From The Ground Up

Hoʻokuaʻāina is located in the ahupuaʻa of Kailua at Kapalai in Maunawili on the island of Oʻahu.

For more information about our programs or how you can get involved please contact us.

visit us

916E Auloa Rd.

Kailua, HI 96734

mail us

P.O. Box 342146

Kailua, HI 96734

email us

Reach Us At:

info@hookuaaina.org

follow us

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© Hoʻokuaʻāina 2020 All Rights Reserved | Terms & Conditions | Privacy | Site By Created By Kaui

Hoʻokuaʻāina is a 501c3 Non-Profit Organization

© Hoʻokuaʻāina 2020 All Rights Reserved | Terms & Conditions | Privacy | Site By Created By Kaui

Hoʻokuaʻāina is a 501c3 Non-Profit Organization

© Hoʻokuaʻāina 2020 All Rights Reserved | Terms & Conditions | Privacy

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