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Hoʻokuaʻāina Blog

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Relating to ʻĀina (land)

Ēwe hānau o ka ʻāina. #387
Natives of the land.
[People who were born and dwelt on the land.]

Hāhai nō ka ua i ka ululāʻau. #405
Rain always follows the forest.
[The rains are attracted to forest trees. Knowing this, Hawaiians hewed only the trees that were needed.]

Hānau ka ʻāina, hānau ke aliʻi, hānau ke kanaka. #466
Born was the land, born were the chiefs, born were the common people
[The land, the chiefs, and the commoners belong together.]

Hawaiʻi kuauli. #501
Hawaiʻi with verdant country.

He aliʻi ka ʻāina, he kauwā ke kanaka. #531
The land is a chief, man is her servant.
[The land has no need for man, but men need the land and cultivated her for a livelihood of abundance.]

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Relating to Kalo (Taro) & Mahiʻai (Farming)

ʻAi nō i kalo moʻa. #83
One can eat cooked taro,
[The work is done; one can sit at ease and enjoy himself.]

Eia ua lani a Hāloa i pili ai ka hanu i ke kapu. #308
Here is a chief descended from Hāloa, whose kapu makes one hold his breath in dread.
[A complement to a chief. To be able to trace descent from Hāloa, an ancient chief, was to be of very high rank from remote antiquity.]

E kāmau iho i ka hoe a pae aku i ke kula. #315
Dip in the paddle till you reach the shore.
[Keep dipping your finger in the poi until you have had your fill.]

E kanu meaʻai, o nānā keiki i kā haʻi. #317
Plant edible food plants lest your children look with longing at someone else’s.

E piʻi ana kahi poʻe, e iho ana kahi poʻe. #372
Some folks go up, some go down.
[While the fingers of some are in the poi bowl, the fingers of others are at the mouth.]

He kalo paʻa. #666
Unpounded taro.
[A spinster or a bachelor.]

E kanu i ka huli ʻoi hāʻule ka ua. #316
Plant the taro stalks while there is rain.
[Do your work when the opportunity affords.]

He kanu Māhoemua, he kalo pū’ali. #671
When one plants in the month of Māhoemua (Hilinaʻehu), they will have irregularly shaped taro.

He keiki aloha nā mea kanu. #684
Beloved children are the plants.
[It is said of farmers that their plants are like beloved children, receiving much love, attention and care.]

Hele nō ka ʻalā, hele nō ka lima. #752
The rock goes, the hand goes.
[To make good poi, the free hand must work in unison with the poi pounder. Keep both hands working to do good work.]

He māʻona ʻai a he māʻona iʻa ko ka noanoa. #806
The commoner is satisfied with food and fish.
[The commoner has no greater ambition than success in farming and fishing.]

He meheuheu mai nā kūpuna mai. #817
Habits acquired from the ancestors; such as fishing, farming – sciences that cultivate abundance.

He poʻo ulu ko nā mea kanu. #914
Plants have heads that will grow again.
[An assurance that if you break off the top of a plant, it will put forth a new one.]

I maikaʻi ke kalo i ka ʻohā. #1232
The goodness of the taro is judged by the young plant it produces.
[Parents are often judged by the behavior of their children]

Ke kalo paʻa o Waiahole* #1735
The hard taro of Waiahole.

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

Wai (Fresh Water)

Ua (Rain)

ʻĀpuakea

This is a general rain for Koʻolaupoko. Especially Kailua, Waimānalo and Kāneʻohe. ʻĀpuakea was a very beautiful woman, that out of jealousy perhaps, Hiʻiaka turned into rain.

 “The ʻĀpuakea rain of Koʻolaupoko was named after ʻĀpuakeanui, the most beautiful woman in Kailua from the moʻolelo of the goddess Hiʻiakaikapoliopele.”

(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao xvi)

“‘Āpuakea. Rain associated with Hāna, Maui, and with Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu, and found in other areas. Also the name of a place in Kāneʻohe, Oʻahu”

(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 4)

“Rain of Kailua, Oʻahu

7. E ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Kui ʻia mai nā ʻāhihi
Na ka Malanai e lawe mai
I wehi i ʻohu no Kalani
O ʻĀpuakea rain

The ʻāhihi blossoms are to be strung
The Malanai wind will bring them
As a decoration, an adornment for the chief

From the song “Pela kapu o Kakae” by the Kawaihau Glee Club.
Hawaiian source: Holstein 33.
English trans. By author.

8. “Akā, ʻo kaʻu wahi ʻai naʻe, aia lā i ka ua ʻĀpuakea o Kailua.”

“But the food I was is there in the ʻĀpuakea rain of Kailua.”

Said by Hiʻiakaikapoliopele, referring to the lūʻau leaves broiled by Kaʻanahau.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 450.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 420.” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 6)

Rain of Kekele, luluku, and Maluaka, Oʻahu

9. “No kēlā ino mai ʻo ʻĀpuakeanui i loaʻa mai ai kēlā ua kaulana o Kailua e hele mai ai a haluku iho i ka ulu hala o Kekele me Luluku, ʻo ia hoʻi ka ua ʻĀpuakea, i holo ma ko ke mele, penei:

Hele haʻaheo ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Holo ʻaui i ke kai o Maluaka ē, i laila
Kaʻa ʻōlelo ka ua i luna o ka hala
Ke poʻo o ka hala o ʻĀhulimanu

From that name, ʻĀpuakeanui, came the name of the famous rain of Kailua that pummels the hala groves of Kekele and Luluku, namely the ʻĀpuakea, which goes like this in song:

The ʻĀpuakea rain moves proudly along
Slipping off into the sea of Maluaka, ah, there
Words are spoken by the rain on the hall
The uppermost hala of ʻĀhulimanu

From the legend of Hiʻiakaikapoliopele.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 146.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 137-38.
Note: Hoʻoulumāhiehie says that “ʻĀpuakeanui” is the name of a woman who was considered the most beautiful in all of Kailua, Oʻahu.

Rain of Koʻolau, Oʻahu

10. E hoʻi e ka uʻi o Koʻolau
ʻOiai ua malu nā pali
ʻO ka neʻe a ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Kāhiko i ke oho o ka palai

Let the youth of Koʻolau return home
For the cliffs are shaded
The creeping of the ʻĀpuakea rain
That adorns the fronds of the palai ferns

From the song “Pali Koolau.”
Hawaiian source: Holstein 74.
English trans. by author.

11. Aloha wale ka leo ua makani
Ka leo heahea o ka ua ʻĀpuakea
E hea ana i ke ao makani kualau

So beloved is the windy, rainy voice
The calling voice of the ʻĀpuakea rain
Calling to the windy kualau rain cloud

From an affectionate greeting by Kahelekūlani to her child.
Hawaiian source: Kaualilinoe, “Ka moolelo” 11/12/1870.
English trans. by author. Additional source: Kaualilinoe, “Legend” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 89).

Kapuaʻikanaka

“2. I ia wā ʻo ia i ʻike aku ai ia ka hele kawewe ʻana aʻe a ka ua i Pālāwai….I kēia wā i paeaea aʻe ai ʻo ia i kēia kau e pili ana i ke kāne, iā Kaʻanahau, a iā Pele nō hoʻi.
Kuʻu kāne i ke ala pili o Mahinui
Mai ka ua Kapuaʻikanaka i Pālāwai
Ka ua o Kailua i kai ē

At that point, she recognized the thrumming rain of Pālāwai….At this time, she presented the following chant about Kaʻanahau, which also pertained to Pele.
My man of the clinging path of Mahinui
From the [Kapuaʻikanaka] rain of Pālāwai that follows like footsteps
The rain of Kailua by the sea

From the legend of Hiʻiakaikapoliopele. Kaʻanahau of Kailua, Oʻahu, was Hiʻiaka’s lover.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 154.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 145.” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 68)

Kuahine

“…ʻO ka ua Kuahine, ʻo ka ua ia mai Kailua a hiki i ʻUalakaʻa.

The ua Kuahine is the rain from Kailua to ʻUalakaʻa.

(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 278)

Akana, C. L. and Gonzalez, K. (2015). Hānau Ka Ua: Hawaiian Rain Names. Kamehameha Publishing: Honolulu.

Pōpōkapa

Ka ua popo kapa is a soft, gentle rain of Maunawili and Ka Nuku o Nuʻuanu (hairpin lookout turn). This is a gentle rain that still makes us “popo” our “kapa.” It makes us roll up our clothes bundles so they won’t get wet. This is a vital rain to replenish our aquifer. Maunawili sits upon our aquifer.

KAHAWAI (STREAMS)

“Seven large streams begin as springs and tributaries on slopes in the Koʻolau Range, on Aniani Nui Ridge, and on Olomana, and then cross Maunawili Valley, carrying water to every tributary valley and lowland plain in the catchment. Clockwise from the south, these streams include ʻAinoni, Maunawili, ʻŌmaʻo, Palapū, Kahanaiki, Olomana, and Makawao. At least fifty springs – forty-three seasonal and seven perennial – recharge the streams, which eventually join Maunawili Stream today, to flow northeast through Kawainui Marsh and empty into Kailua Bay”

(Brennan & Allen, 2009, p. 73)

Brennan, P. and Allen, J. (2009). Life Along the Streams in Maunawili. In Kailua. (pp. 73-86) Kailua Historical Society.

PUNAWAI / WAI HŪ (SPRINGS)

Kapunawaiolaokapalai
The name of the ʻāina Hoʻokuaʻāina stewards is Kapunawaiolaokapalai, the living, lifegiving, healing spring of Kapalai.

Pikoakea
Spring found just below Awāwaloa. “The piko, the source of clean pure water that feeds the streams”

(Piliāmoʻo as cited in Saffery, 2009, p. 45)

Saffery, M. (2009). Pikoakea. In Kailua. (pp. 44-49). Kailua Historical Society.

LOKO IʻA (FISHPONDS)

…The eyes looked with eagerness on the plain of Alele where the chief Kakuhihewa vacationed. It was beautiful from the flats of Alaala to the coast of Puunaʻo and Kalaeohua, from the place of the drifting sea weed of Kuahine of the place of the lipoa sea weed of Oneawa. We saw the heiau of Leleiwi; pleasant Kapaa in the mist; Halekou, the pond of fat fish; Kaluapuhi (Eel pit); Waikolu; the famous pond of Kaelepulu where Makalei, the fish attracting stick stood. The necks of the birds appeared on the pond of Kawainui among the rushes…

Huakai Makaikai i na Wahi Pana o Kini Kailua
Oahu Places: Ke Au Hou
Aug. 9, 1911
(Sterling & Summers, p. 227)

“The ahupuaʻa of Kailua and its sources of foods such as the fishing grounds for ahi at Haoʻo, the kahala fish of Poʻo, the fat fishes of the ponds of Kawainui, Kaʻelepulu and Wakahulu, and the salt of Kaluapuhi (Mokapu), belonged to Maui-hope (Second-Maui).”

Kauakahiakahaola (Kamakau)
He manawa haowale anei Keia, a Kaili a pakahawale, Kuokoa, Nov. 27, 1875

(Sterling & Summers, p. 227-228)

Sterling, E. P. & Summers, C. C. (1978). Sites of Oahu. Bishop Museum Press.

Kaʻelepulu
Ka-ʻele-pulu. Pond (former fishpond), stream, and playground, now called Enchanted Lake, Kai-lua, Oʻahu. Lit., the moist blackness.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Kawainui
“Many Waters.” A large fresh water pond in Kailua, and famous for the oopu kuia and for having once possessed the famous fish log Makalei. The oopu kuia was a large fat mud fish, caught by many people joining hands and dancing in its waters to stir up mud, when the fish would run their heads up against the people, and so were caught. The fishes would cluster very thickly against particular individuals while leaving many others untouched, when, of course, he or she, would make a good haul and fill up his calabashes rapidly. This gave rise to the common saying of the olden times, “he ili ona ia” – “attractive skin.”

Dictionary of Hawaiian Localities
Saturday Press
Oct. 6, 1883
(Sterling & Summers, p. 230)

Sterling, E. P. & Summers, C. C. (1978). Sites of Oahu. Bishop Museum Press.

Mahinui (“great strength”)
A mountain, fishpond and stream at Mōkapu, Oʻahu. Name of a legendary hero defeated by Olomana. His body was cast from Olomana to its present location near Kalāheo.

Clark, John. Hawaiʻi Place Names. 2002. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Compiled by Danielle Espiritu, Education Specialist

ʻŌlelo Noeau: Relating to Kailua

Kailua

Hawaiʻi palu lāʻī. #503
Ti-leaf lickers of Hawaiʻi.
[This saying originated after Kamehameha conquered the island of Oʻahu. The people of Kailua, Oʻahu, gave a great feast for him, not expecting him to bring such a crowd of people. The first to arrive ate up the meat, so the second group had to be content with licking and nibbling at the bits of meat that adhered to the ti leaves. In derision, the people of Oʻahu called them “ti-leaf lickers.”]

Kini Kailua, mano Kāneʻohe. #1801
Forty thousand in Kailua, four thousand in Kāneʻohe.
[A great number. Said by a woman named Kawaihoʻolana whose grandson was ruthlessly murdered by someone from either Kailua or Kāneʻohe. She declared that this many would perish by sorcery to avenge him. Another version credits Keohokauouli, a kahuna in the time of Kamehameha, for this saying. He suggested sorcery as a means of destroying the conqueror’s Oʻahu enemies.]

Mālama o ʻike i ke kaula ʻili hau o Kailua. #2118
Take care lest you feel the haubark rope of Kailua.
[Take care lest you get hurt. When braided into a rounded rope, hau bark is strong, and when used as a switch it can be painful.]

Maunawili

Ua piʻi paha i ka ʻulu o Maunawili. #2848
Gone up, perhaps, to fetch the breadfruit of Maunawili.
[A play on wili (twist, turn about).
Said of one who is confused.]

Kawainui

He lepo ka ʻai a Oʻahu, a māʻona no i ka lepo. #758
Earth is the food of Oʻahu, and it is satisfied with its earth.
[Said in derision of Oʻahu, which was said to be an earth-eating land. In olden times, an edible mud like gelatine was said to fill Kawainui Pond. The mud, which was brought hither from Kahiki in ancient days, was once served to the warriors and servants of Kamehameha as a replacement for poi.]

He ʻoʻopu kuʻia, ka iʻa hilahila o Kawainui. 866
A bashful ʻoʻopu, the shy fish of Kawainui.
[Said of a bashful person. Kawainui at Kailua was one of the largest fishponds on Oʻahu.]

Wawā ka menehune i Puʻukapele ma Kauaʻi, puoho ka manu o ka loko o Kawainui ma Oʻahu. #2920
The shouts of the menehune on Puʻukapele on Kauaʻi startled the birds of Kawainui Pond on Oʻahu.
[The menehune were once so numerous on Kauaʻi that their shouting could be heard on Oʻahu. Said of too much boisterous talking.]

Source: Pukui, M. K. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.

ʻŌlelo Noeau compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone and Danielle Espiritu

Makani (Winds)

Malanai

Ka Malanai is the gentle (northeast, according to some) breeze associated with Kailua. This wind is said to induce lovemaking.

“Holopali is of Kaʻaʻawa and Kualoa,
Kiliua is of Waikāne,
Mololani is of Kuaaohe,
Ulumano is of Kāneʻohe,
The wind is for Kaholoakeāhole,
Puahiohio is the upland wind of Nuʻuanu,
Malanai is of Kailua,
Limu-li-puʻupuʻu comes ashore at Waimānalo,
ʻAlopali is of Pāhonu,
At Makapuʻu the wind turns…”

(Nakuina, 1990, 55)

“Malanai: a gentle breeze (Kailua, Oʻahu; Kōloa, Kauaʻi)”

(Nakuina, 1990, 134)

Nakuina, M. K. (1990). The Wind Gourd of Laʻamaomao. Kalamakū Press: Honolulu.

Kaiāulu

Also a gentle breeze, referenced in newspaper article by B. V. Kalanikuihonoinamoku.

See Kalanikuihonoinamoku, B. V. Ke Au Okoa. No Na wahi a na’Lii e makemake ai e noho ma ka wa kahiko ma ka Mokupuni o Oahu nei. 31 Iul 1865.

Original Text from Ke Au Okoa, accessed through Papakilo Database

Ka Makani Huʻe Kapa

Ka Makani Huʻe Kapa is the wind of Ka Nuku o Nuʻuanu (hairpin lookout turn). This is a strong gusty wind that “huʻe” our “kapa.” It is said to lift up our clothes because it is so gusty. This is a familiar wind to those who would frequently travel (walk) ka Nuku o Nuʻuanu on their way to and from Kona (town)

Compiled by Danielle Espiritu, Education Specialist

Ua (Rains)

ʻĀpuakea

This is a general rain for Koʻolaupoko. Especially Kailua, Waimānalo and Kāneʻohe. ʻĀpuakea was a very beautiful woman, that out of jealousy perhaps, Hiʻiaka turned into rain.

“The ʻĀpuakea rain of Koʻolaupoko was named after ʻĀpuakeanui, the most beautiful woman in Kailua from the moʻolelo of the goddess Hiʻiakaikapoliopele”.
(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao xvi)

“‘Āpuakea. Rain associated with Hāna, Maui, and with Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu, and found in other areas. Also the name of a place in Kāneʻohe, Oʻahu”.
(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 4)

Rain of Kailua, Oʻahu

E ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Kui ʻia mai nā ʻāhihi
Na ka Malanai e lawe mai
I wehi i ʻohu no Kalani
O ʻĀpuakea rain
The ʻāhihi blossoms are to be strung
The Malanai wind will bring them
As a decoration, an adornment for the chief

From the song “Pela kapu o Kakae” by the Kawaihau Glee Club.
Hawaiian source: Holstein 33. English trans. By author.

“Akā, ʻo kaʻu wahi ʻai naʻe, aia lā i ka ua ʻĀpuakea o Kailua.” “But the food I was is there in the ʻĀpuakea rain of Kailua.”

Said by Hiʻiakaikapoliopele, referring to the lūʻau leaves broiled by Kaʻanahau.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 450.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 420.” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 6)

Rain of Kekele, luluku, and Maluaka, Oʻahu

“No kēlā ino mai ʻo ʻĀpuakeanui i loaʻa mai ai kēlā ua kaulana o Kailua e hele mai ai a haluku iho i ka ulu hala o Kekele me Luluku, ʻo ia hoʻi ka ua ʻĀpuakea, i holo ma ko ke mele, penei:
….
Hele haʻaheo ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Holo ʻaui i ke kai o Maluaka ē, i laila
Kaʻa ʻōlelo ka ua i luna o ka hala
Ke poʻo o ka hala o ʻĀhulimanu

From that name, ʻĀpuakeanui, came the name of the famous rain of Kailua that pummels the hala groves of Kekele and Luluku, namely the ʻĀpuakea, which goes like this in song:
…….
The ʻĀpuakea rain moves proudly along
Slipping off into the sea of Maluaka, ah, there
Words are spoken by the rain on the hala
The uppermost hala of ʻĀhulimanu

From the legend of Hiʻiakaikapoliopele.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 146.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 137-38. Note: Hoʻoulumāhiehie says that “ʻĀpuakeanui” is the name of a woman who was considered the most beautiful in all of Kailua, Oʻahu.

Rain of Koʻolau, Oʻahu

E hoʻi e ka uʻi o Koʻolau
ʻOiai ua malu nā pali
ʻO ka neʻe a ka ua ʻĀpuakea
Kāhiko i ke oho o ka palai
Let the youth of Koʻolau return home
For the cliffs are shaded
The creeping of the ʻĀpuakea rain
That adorns the fronds of the palai ferns

From the song “Pali Koolau.”
Hawaiian source: Holstein 74.
English trans. by author.

Aloha wale ka leo ua makani
Ka leo heahea o ka ua ʻĀpuakea
E hea ana i ke ao makani kualau
So beloved is the windy, rainy voice
The calling voice of the ʻĀpuakea rain
Calling to the windy kualau rain cloud

From an affectionate greeting by Kahelekūlani to her child.
Hawaiian source: Kaualilinoe, “Ka moolelo” 11/12/1870.
English trans. by author. Additional source: Kaualilinoe, “Legend” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 89).

Akana, C. L. and Gonzalez, K. (2015). Hānau Ka Ua: Hawaiian Rain Names. Kamehameha Publishing: Honolulu.

Kapuaʻikanaka

I ia wā ʻo ia i ʻike aku ai ia ka hele kawewe ʻana aʻe a ka ua i Pālāwai….I kēia wā i paeaea aʻe ai ʻo ia i kēia kau e pili ana i ke kāne, iā Kaʻanahau, a iā Pele nō hoʻi.
Kuʻu kāne i ke ala pili o Mahinui
Mai ka ua Kapuaʻikanaka i Pālāwai
Ka ua o Kailua i kai ē

At that point, she recognized the thrumming rain of Pālāwai…At this time, she presented the following chant about Kaʻanahau, which also pertained to Pele.
My man of the clinging path of Mahinui
From the [Kapuaʻikanaka] rain of Pālāwai that follows like footsteps
The rain of Kailua by the sea

From the legend of Hiʻiakaikapoliopele. Kaʻanahau of Kailua, Oʻahu, was Hiʻiaka’s lover.
Hawaiian source: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Ka Moʻolelo 154.
English trans.: Hoʻoulumāhiehie, Epic 145.” (Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 68)

Akana, C. L. and Gonzalez, K. (2015). Hānau Ka Ua: Hawaiian Rain Names. Kamehameha Publishing: Honolulu.

Kuahine

…ʻO ka ua Kuahine, ʻo ka ua ia mai Kailua a hiki i ʻUalakaʻa.

…The ua Kuahine is the rain from Kailua to ʻUalakaʻa.”

(Akana & Gonzalez, 2015, aoao 278)

Akana, C. L. and Gonzalez, K. (2015). Hānau Ka Ua: Hawaiian Rain Names. Kamehameha Publishing: Honolulu.

Pōpōkapa

Ka ua popo kapa is a soft, gentle rain of Maunawili and Ka Nuku o Nuʻuanu (hairpin lookout turn). This is a gentle rain that still makes us “popo” our “kapa.” It makes us roll up our clothes bundles so they won’t get wet. This is a vital rain to replenish our aquifer. Maunawili sits upon our aquifer.

Compiled by Danielle Espiritu, Education Specialist

Wahi Pana (Sacred & Celebrated Places)

ʻĀLELE
(“it has flown”)

Land area in the approximate center of Kailua, Oʻahu, formerly a plain called Kula-o-ʻĀlele, a sports area.

Parker, Henry H. A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language. 1922. The Board of Commissioners of Public Archives of the Territory of Hawaiʻi.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Many stories of Kākuhihewa remind us of the prosperity and splendor during his reign. Peace prevailed throughout the island, farming and fishing provided unlimited supplies of food for all, and population and wealth increased.  The cheerful, beloved Kākuhihewa was greeted by the bravest, wisest, and most brilliant of the aristocracy of the other islands. Kākuhihewa held his residences at three locations: ʻEwa, Waikīkī, and Kailua.  All three areas were lush and well-stocked and accustomed to providing for a very large court and accompanying guests.  A large dwelling was built at ʻĀlele in Kailua that was named Pāmoa to hold court and entertain his many guests.  This area was also formerly known as Kula o ʻĀlele and was located at the center of Kailua, Oʻahu.

Retrieved from: https://apps.ksbe.edu/kaiwakiloumoku/kakuhihewa

Akana, H. (2013). Kākuhihewa.

AWĀWALOA

Peak that “marks the center of Maunawili Valley” (Piliāmoʻo as cited in Saffery, 2009, p. 45)

Saffery, M. (2009). Pikoakea. In Kailua. (pp. 44-49). Kailua Historical Society.

KAʻELEPULU

Ka-ʻele-pulu. Pond (former fishpond), stream, and playground, now called Enchanted Lake, Kai-lua, Oʻahu. Lit., the moist blackness.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press

KAILUA
(“two seas”)

The ahupuaʻa between Waimānalo and Kāneʻohe in the moku of Koʻolaupoko. Perhaps named so because of Kawainui and Kaʻelepulu, two great fishponds of the area that connect to the sea.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Kailua

…The eyes looked with eagerness on the plain of Alele where the chief Kakuhihewa vacationed. It was beautiful from the flats of Alaala to the coast of Puunaʻo and Kalaeohua, from the place of the drifting sea weed of Kuahine of the place of the lipoa sea weed of Oneawa. We saw the heiau of Leleiwi; pleasant Kapaa in the mist; Halekou, the pond of fat fish; Kaluapuhi (Eel pit); Waikolu; the famous pond of Kaelepulu where Makalei, the fish attracting stick stood. The necks of the birds appeared on the pond of Kawainui among the rushes…

Huakai Makaikai i na Wahi Pana o Kini Kailua
Oahu Places: Ke Au Hou
Aug. 9, 1911
(Sterling & Summers, p. 227)

“The ahupuaʻa of Kailua and its sources of foods such as the fishing grounds for ahi at Haoʻo, the kahala fish of Poʻo, the fat fishes of the ponds of Kawainui, Kaʻelepulu and Wakahulu, and the salt of Kaluapuhi (Mokapu), belonged to Maui-hope (Second-Maui).”

Kauakahiakahaola (Kamakau)
He manawa haowale anei Keia, a Kaili a pakahawale, Kuokoa, Nov. 27, 1875
(Sterling & Summers, p. 227-228)
Sterling, E. P. & Summers, C. C. (1978). Sites of Oahu. Bishop Museum Press.

The area that included what is now Kāneʻohe and Kailua, which was rich in fishponds and tillable lands, was the seat of the ruling chiefs of Koʻolaupoko (Short Koʻolau) which was the southern portion of the windward coast.

(Handy et. al, p. 272)

Kailua

Kailua was the home of the aliʻi Kualiʻi in the early 18th century, and presumably had been the seat of hte high chiefs of Koʻolaupoko from very early times. The beach, the bay, and living conditions were and are very attractive. Waimanalo and Kaneʻohe [sp], both rich farming areas, were neighboring. Access to the northern districts of Koʻolaupoko was easy over the waters of the great indentation in the coast now called Kaneʻohe Bay, which extends from Kaneʻohe harbord along the whole Koʻolaupoko coast, past Heʻeia, Kahaluʻu, Kaʻalaea, Waiahole, Waikane, and Hakipuʻu to Kualoa. All these districts were rich in agricultural resources and fishing grounds, but were not attractive from teh point of view of residence.

Undoubtedly further reasons for the attractiveness of Kailua as a place of residence for an aliʻi nui with his large entourage were the great natural fishponds, Kaʻelepulu and Kawainui, and the complex of artificial salt-water ponds that are between Kailua and Kaneʻohe in the Mokapu area: Halelou, Nuʻupia, and Kaluapuhi.

Kailua must formerly have been very rich agriculturally, having one of the most extensive continuous terrace areas on Oahu, extending inland one and a half miles from the margin of Kawainui Swamp. Terraces extended up into the various valleys that run back into the Koʻolau range. There were some terraces watered by springs and a small stream from Olomana mountain along the western slope of the ridge that lies southeast of Kawainui Swamp, and another system of terraces was east of the seaward end of the ridge, watered by the stream which joins Kawainui and Kaʻelepulu Ponds. There were also terraces north of the Kawainui Pond, and several terrace areas flanked Kaʻelepulu Pond at the base of the ridge to the eastward. Much former taro land reverted to swamp when abandoned; this has since been drained.

(Handy et. al, p. 457)

Handy, E. S. C, Handy, E. G., & Pukui, M. K. 1991. Native planters in old Hawaii: Their life, lore & environment. Bishop Museum Press.

Kailua i ke Oho a ka Malanai: An Essay by Kīhei and Māpuana de Silva

de Silva, K. & M. de Silva (2017). Kailua i ke Oho o ka Malanai.

Retrieved from: http://www.hikaalani.website/uploads/3/4/9/7/34977599/kailua_i_ka_malanai_for_hweb.pdf

KAʻIWA
(“the frigate bird”)

A peak and ridge above Kaʻōhao, Kailua that is now a popular hiking spot. Named for the Hawaiian frigate bird that hunts fish because they were often seen here.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

KAPALAI

Kapalai is the name of the ʻili ʻāina where Hoʻokuaʻāina is located. The name of the ʻāina Hoʻokuaʻāina stewards is Kapunawaiolaokapalai, the living, lifegiving, healing spring of Kapalai.

An ʻili in the uplands of Kailua.

Parker, Henry H. A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language. 1922. The Board of Commissioners of Public Archives of the Territory of Hawaiʻi.

At the time of the tax assessment in Kailua in 1846, Kauha was the konohiki (land manager) who oversaw the ʻili ʻāina of Kapalai. At this time there were 6 moʻo ʻāina (parcels) in Kapalai (Silva, 2009, p. 16).

Silva, C. (2009). Kailua in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. In Kailua. (pp. 7-18). Kailua Historical Society.

KAWAINUI

Kawainui Pond

Site 370. Kawainui pond, once a large inland pond.

The pond belonged to the alii. Hauwahine was the goddess (moʻo) of this pond, as well as of Paeo pond, (Site 277 Laie, Koolauloa), where she stayed only when leaves and other refuse (amoʻo) covered that pond. At other times she departed to Kailua. The old Hawaiians at Kailua, however, insist that she never left Kawainui

McAllister
Arch. of Oahu
(Sterling & Summers, p. 230)

Here were found the finest fat mullet on this side of the island. Here also, Haumea, the goddess dwelt with the fish attracting wood, Makalei.

The road cuts through a part of the pond.

The awa fish at this pond were so tame that they were easily caught. The fish did not like persons with strong smelling skins (ili awa) and kept away from them. Otherwise they swam right up to a person in the water.

Alona, Mrs. Charles
Informant, Sept. 28, 1939
Kailua-Waimanalo
(Sterling & Summers, p. 230)

Kawainui

“Many Waters.” A large fresh water pond in Kailua, and famous for the oopu kuia and for having once possessed the famous fish log Makalei. The oopu kuia was a large fat mud fish, caught by many people joining hands and dancing in its waters to stir up mud, when the fish would run their heads up against the people, and so were caught. The fishes would cluster very thickly against particular individuals while leaving many others untouched, when, of course, he or she, would make a good haul and fill up his calabashes rapidly. This gave rise to the common saying of the olden times, “he ili ona ia” – “attractive skin.”

Dictionary of Hawaiian Localities
Saturday Press
Oct. 6, 1883
(Sterling & Summers, p. 230)

Kawainui Pond – Hauwahine

Wahineomaʻo saw two beautiful women sitting on the bank of the stream near Kawainui pond and remarked to Hiiaka, “See those beautiful women?” “Those are not real women, but lizards,” replied Hiiaka. Beacuase of Wahinemaʻo’s disbelief she said, “I will chant and if they remain where they are, then they are human, but if they vanish, they are lizards.”

Then she chanted:

Kailua is like hair tousled by the Malanai wind,
The leaves of the uki are flattened down,
You are startled as though by the voice of a bird.
You think they are human
But they are not.
That is Hau-wahine and her companion,
The supernatural women of peaceful Kailua.

When the lizard-women heard her voice, they glanced at each other as if startled and disappeared. “Now I see,” said Wahinema’o, “those are truly lizard women.” Hiiaka explained, “One, Hau-wahine belongs up here in Ka-wai-nui and is its guardian. The second belongs to the hala grove on the level place close to the stream of Kaʻele-pulu. When she returns from up here the leaves of the hala trees there turn yellow. The leaves of the uki grass and the bullrushes in the water turn yellow too. This is the sign of the presence of a lizard (moʻo). The plants round about take a yellowish hue.”

Hiiakaikapoliopele
Ka Naʻi Aupuni, Jan. 22, 1906
(Similar story in “Hiiakaikapoliopele” Hoku o Hawaii Dec. 29., 1925)
(Sterling & Summers, p. 231)

Sterling, E. P. & Summers, C. C. (1978). Sites of Oahu. Bishop Museum Press.

Edible Mud of Kawainui by Kapalaiʻula de Silva

“Samuel Kamakau writes that the lepo ‘ai of Kawainui was said to have been brought from the Pillars of Kahiki by Kauluakalana, a famous voyager who traveled extensively between the Pacific islands and its peoples.  He explains that this dirt is one and the same as ‘alaea, the ocherous earth used traditionally in medicines, dyes, and as a mineral additive to salt.  Lahilahi Webb, however, states that lepo ‘ai was completely unique unto Kawainui.  She describes it as thick and jelly-like, similar in texture to haupia.  Webb also notes that there was a kapu observed when gathering this resource.  “No one was allowed to utter a word while the diver was in the pond getting it.  If a word was spoken, ordinary mud rose up around the diver and covered him so that he died.  There was no escape” (de Silva, 2013).

de Silva, K. (2013) Edible Mud of Kawainui.

Retrieved from: https://apps.ksbe.edu/kaiwakiloumoku/node/594

For more information about Kawainui, see the following:

KONAHUANUI
(“Large fat innards”)

The tallest peak of the Koʻolau Mountain range. (3,150 feet high) above the Nuʻuanu Pali, Oʻahu. In one story a giant threw his great testicles (kona hua nui) at a woman whom he desired, but escaped him. His genitals then became the peak of Kōnāhuanui. Today the pronunciation is Konahua-nui.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

MAHINUI
(“great strength”)

A mountain, fishpond and stream at Mōkapu, Oʻahu. Name of a legendary hero defeated by Olomana. His body was cast from Olomana to its present location near Kalāheo.

Clark, John. Hawaiʻi Place Names. 2002. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

MAUNAWILI

He mele kēia o ke aloha no Maunawili
Ua hoʻokamaʻāina au i kou nani
ʻO ka noe i ka wailele i ka piʻina
O ka lā ʻālohilohi i ka wai o uka
Mākaʻikaʻi nō kāua i ka ulu hau
Hōʻolu i ka poli, hōʻoni i ke kahawai
Kū haʻaheo i luna ʻo ke Koʻolau
E hoʻi kāua e pili i ka uka o Maunawili Ua kamaʻāina au i kou nani

This is a mele of love for Maunawili
Where I have grown accustomed to your beauty
The waterfall is misty as the sunrise
Sparkles in the upland water.
We journey through hau grove
And cool our hearts, stirring the mountain stream
Koʻolau stands above
Let us be close once more in the uplands of Maunawili For I have grown accustomed to her beauty.

“Ka Uʻi o Maunawili,” words and music by David Kaʻio with Dwayne Kaulia (Hawaiian language), 1990. (Saffery, 2009, p. 87)

Saffery, M. (2009). Ka Uʻi o Maunawili. In Kailua. (pp. 87-91). Kailua Historical Society.

Ka Uʻi o Maunawili: An Essay by Kīhei de Silva (de Silva, 1990)

de Silva, K. (2017). Ka Uʻi o Maunawili.

Retrieved from: http://www.hikaalani.website/uploads/3/4/9/7/34977599/ka_ui_o_maunawili_for_hweb.pdf

For more information on Maunawili, see the following moʻolelo:

MŌKAPU

(“mō” short for “moku” as in “moku kapu” restricted island/district) This area was kapu, restricted because Kamehameha would meet his chiefs here. Point on the most Kāneʻohe side of Kailua bay that resembles a honu, turtle. The first man is also said to have been created here by Kāne and Kanaloa on the eastern part of Mololani at Mōkapu. Kāne drew the image of a human in the soil, with a body, head, arms and feet just like themselves as gods. Kanaloa then told Kāne that he did not have enough power on his own to bring the human to life. Kāne then appealed to Kū and Lono for help. Kāne then called the man to live, Kū and Lono did as well, and then the soil became a living man.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Kamākau, Moolelo o Hawaii. Chap 1.

OLOMANA

Olomana: Olomana (“forked hill”) is a beautiful mountain in Kailua, which is very distinct for its three peaks, Olomana, Pākuʻi and Ahiki. Ahiki is the peak closest to Waimānalo. Olomana is the peak closed to Kailua, and Pākuʻi is the middle peak.  

Alona, Charles. (Sterling, E.P. & Summers C. C.) Sites of Oʻahu, pg. 234. 1978. The Bishop Museum Press.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

Hiehie Olomana: An Essay by Kīhei de Silva (de Silva, 2011)

de Silva, K. (2017). Hiehie Olomana.

Retrieved from: http://www.hikaalani.website/uploads/3/4/9/7/34977599/hiehie_olomana_for_hweb.pdf

For more information about Olomana see the following moʻolelo:

PIKOAKEA

Spring found just below Awāwaloa. “The piko, the source of clean pure water that feeds the streams”

(Piliāmoʻo as cited in Saffery, 2009, p. 45)

Saffery, M. (2009). Pikoakea. In Kailua. (pp. 44-49). Kailua Historical Society.

ULUMAWAO
(“growth at the forest”)

A peak in Kailua near Kawainui.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

ULUPŌ

Ancient heiau and now a historic site near Kai-lua, Oʻahu; a large open platform was sometimes attributed to Menehune. Lit., night inspiration.

Pūkuʻi, Elbert, & Moʻokini. Place Names of Hawaiʻi. 1974, 2004. University of Hawaiʻi Press.

For more information about Ulupō, see:

Compiled by Danielle Espiritu, Education Specialist

Brief Timeline

Click To Download PDF

Prior to 1778 – Kailua planted primarily in kalo long before Western contact.

1831-1832 – 760 residents in Kailua. (353 males, 275 females, 61 boys, 71 girls)

1835 – 762 living in Kailua.

1846 – 749 living in Kailua.

December 1846 – Tax assessment (Kingdom of Hawaiʻi) lists 71 ʻili ʻāina in the ahupuaʻa of Kailua.

1848 – The Mahele. The ʻili ʻāina of Kawailoa in Kailua was claimed for the Crown (Kamehameha III). The remaining land was available for chiefs, land managers, and commoners.

“The Land Board received a total of 203 kuleana claims for lands in Kailua. Of these, 114 were awarded; 89 were not awarded, for a variety of reasons…The land records describe, for the 114 claims awarded, 176 actived cultivated parcels (presumably, dryland), 441 active taro pondfields (wetland), and 87 houselots. Among the 89 unawarded claims, there were 140 parcels in active cultivation, 238 taro pondfields being tended, and 61 houselots. At the time initial claims were submitted for both awarded and unawarded lands, Kailua is described as having 316 parcels in active cultivation, 679 pondfields beign tended, and 148 houselots occupied by one or more individuals”.

(Silva, 2009, p. 12)

1849 – William Jarrett purchases 670 acres in the ʻili of Maunawili, becoming the 1st private land owner in upper Maunawili Valley.

1852 – Large numbers of Chinese migrate to Hawai‘i to work on sugar plantations. Rice cultivation begins.

1855 – Henry H. Sawyer purchases 1,242 acres (all kuleana in the ʻili of Maunawili, including Jarrett’s land, as well as land in the ʻili of ʻŌmaʻo). This land becomes known as “Maunawili Ranch”.

1859 – Approx. ¼ of 255 taxpayers in Kailua were actively farming wet or dry-land kalo.

Mid-1860s – Lands leased for rice cultivation. **Likely the same lands used previously for kalo. (Tax rolls)

1865 – Cotton growing in Manulele.

1869 – Maria Hio Adams Boyd purchases Henry Sawyer’s land, 400 cattle & 14 horses.

1870 – Hakaleleponi Kapākūhaili Kalama (Kamehameha III’s royal consort) passes & her uncle, Charles Kanaʻina, inherits her land holdings in Kailua.

May 1, 1871 – Kanaʻina sells Kailua assets to Charles Coffin Harris. (Approx. $22,450)

1875 – Maria Adams Boyd and husband Edwin Harbottle Boyd own 700 cattle.

1875 – Taxes assessed for a rice mill belonging to Aho, a Chinese planter.

1875 – “…there were already ʻlarge herds of cattle and horses’”. (Brennan & Drogot, 2009, p. 182)

1876 – Reciprocity Treaty signed with U.S. Beneficial to the export of rice and sugar.

1876 – Rice mill established by Aho in Kailua. (He had 32.45 acres in possession)

1880 – At least 7 rice growers identified in Kailua.

The early 1880s – At least 10 Chinese rice growers listed in the ahupuaʻa of Kailua. (Tax assessor’s records)

July 11, 1892 – Nannie Roberta Harris Brewer Rice (daughter of Charles Harris) receives a Royal Patent for nearly 12,000 acres of land in Kailua after filing a certificate of boundary. (May 26, 1892)

1893 – Illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

1893 – The Boyd family sells Maunawili Ranch (approx. 1,200 acres) to William G. And Fannie Irwin. Cattle is a well-established industry. Irwin becomes the major landowner in upper Maunawili.
Irwin partnered with Claus Spreckels to control the processing of over ½ of Hawaiʻi’s sugar, including Waimanalo Sugar Company. (Which Irwin controlled after 1885).

 “Maunawili Ranch was located just over the Aniani Nui Ridge from Waimānalo adn the Waimanalo Sugar Company mill. The sugar cane in Waimānalo needed water, and Irwin was largely responsible for diverting water via a ditch system from Maunawili to Waimānalo”.

(Brennan, 2009, p. 60)

“Soil- and cement-lined ditches, flumes, and tunnels were developed in 1893 by W. G. Irwin to deliver water to Waimanalo Sugar Company. Today, the State maintains the ditch system for the benefit of Waimānalo farmers. (Piliāmoʻo)”.

(Brennan & Allen, 2009, p. 69)

1893-1896 – Irwin purchases additional lands in Kailua, including land in teh ʻili of Kīhuluhulu, Kaʻimi ʻAinoni, Puakea, Kaʻelepulu, Puanea, and Kalaekoa.

1895 – 10 acres of Irwin’s estate in Maunawili cleared and planted w/almost 7,000 coffee trees.

Late 1800s – Ranching enterprises, 1,000s of acres in Kailua appear on Tax Assessors records.

1908 – Over 100 acres of Irwin’s estate planted with coffee w/the mill on his Maunawili estate.

1910 – Maunawili Ranch sold to C. Brewer & Company.

1910 – Arthur Rice & Harold Castle start the earliest dairy lands in coastal Kailua.

1916 – Housing development begins in Kailua.

April 2, 1917 – Nannie Rice sells lands in Kailua to Harold K. Castle.

1924 – Castle begins his 1st housing tract along N. Kalāhea Avenue. (Named after Queen Kalama)

1924 – Campos family comes to Kailua and goes on to run larges & longest operating dairy in Kailua.

Late 1920s – Most land formerly used for rice paddies becomes pastureland.

1936 – Kalama subdivision parceled 186 lots. ($1,500 – $2,000 each)

1940 – Population of Kailua – 1,500 people.

1941 – Maunawili ranch sold by Brewer to Kaneohe Ranch. During WWII, it was used for military training.

1950 – Population of Kailua – 7,740 people.

1950s – Territory of Hawaiʻi declares Ulupō heiau as a Protected Site.

End of 1950s – Population of Kailua – over 25,000 people.

1960s – Hālaualolo heiau (near Palapū and ʻŌmaʻo streams) destroyed during development of Maunawili Estates subdivision. Water rechanneled to accommodatenew homes and roads.

1962 – Ulupō heiau designated as a State Monument.

(Silva, 2009, p. 7-17; Brennan, 2009, p. 55-71; Brennan & Allen, 2009, p. 85; Drigot, 2009, p. 102; Drigot, 2009, p. 151; Brennan & Drigot, 2009, p. 182-196)

Nakuina, M. K. (1990). The Wind Gourd of Laʻamaomao. Kalamakū Press: Honolulu.
**Translated by: Esther T. Mookini and Sarah Nākoa

Compiled by Danielle Espiritu, Education Specialist

Māhele ʻĀina (Land Divisions)

Mokupuni (Island):
Oʻahu

Moku (District):
Koʻolaupoko

Ahupuaʻa:
Kailua

ʻIli ʻĀina:

  • Anoni
  • Alalapapa
  • Alawai
  • Auloa
  • Haimilo/Pehialii/Moopilau
  • Hapakapa
  • Hiwapoo
  • Hualea
  • Kaakepa
  • Kaakepa
  • Kaalelekamani
  • Kaanokama
  • Kaelepulu
  • Kahanaiki
  • Kahoa
  • Kahoa
  • Kaioa
  • Kaipolia
  • Kalaekoa
  • Kalaiaoa
  • Kaluaikoa
  • Kamakalepo
  • Kamakalepo
  • Kamakalepo
  • Kamakalepo
  • Kanahau
  • Kaoha
  • Kaohia
  • Kaohia
  • Kaohia
  • Kapalai*
  • Kapaloa
  • Kapia
  • Kaulu
  • Kaulu
  • Kawailoa
  • Kawailoa
  • Kawainui
  • Keahupuaa
  • Kahupuaanui
  • Keolu
  • Kihuluhulu
  • Kionaole
  • Kionaole
  • Kuailima
  • Kuapuaa
  • Kuapuaa
  • Kuapuaa
  • Kuapuaa
  • Kukanono
  • Kukuimoemoe/Kuinamu/Hakala
  • Kupaka
  • Makakepa
  • Makali
  • Makalii
  • Makawao
  • Malamalama
  • Mani
  • Maunawili
  • Mokulua
  • Namu
  • Ohuauli
  • Omao
  • Oneawa
  • Oneawa
  • Oneawa
  • Oneawa
  • Oneawa
  • Paalae
  • Palalupe
  • Palalupe
  • Palalupe
  • Palapu
  • Papaloa
  • Papaloa
  • Papaloa
  • Pohakea
  • Pohakea
  • Pohakea
  • Pohakupu
  • Pohakupu
  • Pohakupu
  • Pohakupu
  • Pohakupu
  • Pohakupu
  • Pooakea
  • Puakea
  • Puheke
  • Puukae
  • Uolulu
  • Waeopihi
  • Waipaakiki

*Kapalai is the name of the ʻili ʻāina where Hoʻokuaʻāina is located.

Visit the AVAKONOHIKI website to see more maps of Koʻolaupoko.

Visit the Kipuka Database for more information on Oʻahu, Koʻolaupoko, and the ʻili found in Kailua.

Kamakakūokaʻāina. Koʻolaupoko. AVAKONOHIKI: Ancestral Visions of ʻĀina. http://www.avakonohiki.org/maps-koolaupoko.html

Kipuka Database. (2016). Office of Hawaiian Affairs. Retrieved from: http://kipukadatabase.com/kipuka/Ahupuaa.html?ObjectID=554&b=2

Compiled by Danielle Espiritu, Education Specialist

Meet Benji

“ʻAʻohe hana nui ke alu ʻia.”

No task is too big when done together by all.

Benji clearing the area for the new patch

Aloha e nā poʻe ʻo Hawaiʻi! My inoa is Benji Ah Sing and I hope this message finds you well. For the past two years, I have had the privilege of being an intern here at Hoʻokuaʻāina. To my recent delight, Iʻve also been honored with the promotion to co-farm manager entailing new kuleana and a greater sense of management skills. My time here with our organization has aided in molding the kāne that I am on my way to becoming.

As a graduate of Kamehameha Schools Class of 2014 I pursued a collegiate degree in clinical psychology at Point Loma Nazarene University. Upon the completion of my degree I returned home to the moku of Oʻahu in hopes of becoming a contributing community member with a passion for our island culture and a strong back! My strengths at this time of completing school made me an excellent candidate to hana within the Department of Education. Admittedly I felt my calling outside the walls of what would be considered normal education.

The idea of community-based education with an emphasis on ʻike Hawaiʻi was/is something that strikes me as very intriguing. Modern times are ever-changing but Hawaiʻiʻs kānaka stands firm with the steadfast goals of truly living a sustainable lifestyle and passing on those positive habits to the generations that come after our time. Hoʻokuaʻāina has allowed me the opportunity to experience a full effort of community members that hui together in an attempt to eat from the ʻāina beneath our feet and more importantly share that ʻike with people of all sorts.

Due to our likeminded goals it is inevitable that we as hui members have created lifelong pilina with each other. There always seems to be a natural succession of when it is time for people to come and go. And as these times unfurl we humbly celebrate memories of the past together and kakoʻo the next phase of life someone is entering into. Together we help each other grow. Together we help one another through difficulties. Together we holomua. United by the the notion that no matter where life takes us kokua will always be at the forefront of our mission here at Hoʻokuaʻāina.

Meet Keʻalohilani

Aloha! I am Keʻalohilani and I am from Kapaʻakea in Mōʻiliʻili. In the summer of 2017, I participated in a sustainability, project management internship that focused on various projects, and one of them was the Board and Stone Project. That summer I learned how to make papa and pohaku kuʻi ʻai. I also recall a single day where I worked in a cubicle for 8 hours and I told myself I could never do that again. I saw my friend Maile doing an internship with an organization called Hoʻokuaʻāina, and it piqued my interest because I wanted to learn more about kalo and loʻi since me and my grandma made a board and stone. She also mentioned something about it changing her life a little, so I thought I’d apply. Oh–and I can’t leave out that I left Oʻahu to play volleyball in Memphis 5,000 miles away, and my spirit needed some refueling. 

My first summer working here in 2018 was a transitioning mode for me. I was transferring back home to attend Chaminade, having an internal and cultural battle of whether or not to study Business, and deciding if I was going to walk away from a nine-year relationship…with volleyball (hahaha but seriously).

Fast forward a year and a half, I am still at the loʻi thanks to the timing and welcoming crew that have allowed me to grow with Hoʻokuaʻāina.  I now have a new chapter being written every single day, and I seriously am so grateful for my support system, my new brothers and sisters, and a little proud of myself for trusting my naʻau and taking a leap of faith by doing something new and saying aloha to a sport that gave me so much.

In my time here at the loʻi, I was able to strengthen and embrace parts of myself that I either didn’t know existed or simply took for granted. I have nothing to complain of in my life, but something Kapalai and the mud does for me is heal and allow me to strengthen my spiritual connection that really was brought out in those moments of working in silence.

In recent months, I am constantly humbled and learning to have grace, as I am exposed to a variety of people and backgrounds, especially those of our Hawaiian community. Growing up and finding out that not everyone did “Hawaiian things” was a huge shock for me. Now that I am older, working at Hoʻokuaʻāina has forced me to reflect on my upbringing, and realize these “Hawaiian things” and practices, mindsets, values that I was brought up with–are not normal anymore (not to say there’s one set way.) My lifelong goal is to serve my community, especially my Hawaiian people, and Hoʻokuaʻāina has opened my eyes to individuals and families whose values and cultures have been erased and absent for years upon years. It’s a living nightmare for sure, but my experience so far at Kapalai has helped to crystallize my why and goals in life. Currently, I am studying Business at Chaminade, and plan to utilize my entrepreneurial and business endeavors to flip the script and benefit our people and communities. I may not see the fruits of our labor in my lifetime, but I do it for my kupuna who fought for my existence, and therefore do it for those unborn babies that I will never meet. 

Mele Wai

Drawing By Makana Wilhelm

Lā, ʻŌpua, Lā

Lā, ʻŌpua, Ua, ʻŌpua, Lā

Lā, ʻŌpua, Ua, Kuahiwi, Ua ʻŌpua, Lā

Lā, ʻŌpua, Ua, Kuahiwi, Wailele, Kuahiwi, Ua ʻŌpua, Lā

Lā, ʻŌpua, Ua, Kuahiwi, Wailele, Kahawai, Wailele, Kuahiwi, Ua ʻŌpua, Lā

Lā, ʻŌpua, Ua, Kuahiwi, Wailele, Kahawai, Punawai, Kahawai, Wailele, Kuahiwi, Ua ʻŌpua, Lā

Lā, ʻŌpua, Ua, Kuahiwi, Wailele, Kahawai, Punawai, Inu wai, Kahawai, Wailele, Kuahiwi, Ua ʻŌpua, Lā

Hoʻokuaʻāina has not written and does not have the rights to this mele.

Vocabulary

  • : Sun
  • ʻŌpua: Puffy, billowy cloud
  • Ua: Rain
  • Kuahiwi: Mountain
  • Wailele: Waterfall
  • Kahawai: Stream
  • Punawai: Fresh water spring
  • Inu wai: To drink water

Moʻolelo: Moe Kaoo I Ka Ai Lepo

“Details of Frank Pahia’s 1890 sketch map of Kawainui, showing Maunawili Stream emptying into the big pond. (Kaneohe Ranch Co.)” As cited in: de Silva, K. (2009). Ka Mākālei a Kawainui. In Kailua. (pp. 51). Kailua Historical Society.

Moe Kaoo I Ka Ai Lepo
Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Volume XI, Number 43, 26 October 1872

Summary

This article comes from Ka Nupepa Kuokoa and was published on October 26, 1872. In it, the author, J. B. Keliikanakaole, recounts a story of Bernice Pauahi Bishop and Miriam Likelike Cleghorn as they journey from Hanakamalaelae, Heʻeia to the fishpond at Kawainui, Kailua, Oʻahu to taste the lepo ʻai ʻia (edible mud) found there. 

Sources

Inquiry Questions

  1. What do you think this lepo ʻai ʻia was? Why would it be so significant that the aliʻi Pauahi and Likelike both made the journey from Heʻeia to try it? 
  2. What does this moʻolelo tell us about the health of Kawainui and of Kailua at the time? Where are we in comparison?
  3. Do you think there is still lepo ʻai ʻia in Kawainui fishpond today? Why or why not? 
  4. What can we do to bring this lepo ʻai ʻia (and other sources of food) back so that they can be eaten by future generations?
  5. What life lessons might we learn from this moʻolelo? How might it connect with our ʻōlelo noʻeau?

Vocabulary

  • Lepo ʻai ʻia: Edible mud found in the fishpond of Kawainui in Kailua, Koʻolaupoko
  • Lepo: Mud, dirt, soil, earth
  • ʻAi: To eat; food; taro
  • Aliʻi:Royalty
  • Huakaʻi: To journey, travel
  • Pāʻina: To eat, share a meal

Inoa ʻĀina (Wind, Rain, & Place Names)

  • Hanakamalaelae: An area in the ahupuaʻa of Heʻeia where Bernice Pauahi Bishop would sometime reside
  • Heeia: An ahupuaʻa between Kāneʻohe and Kahaluʻu in the district of Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu
  • Kaneohe: An ahupuaʻa between Kailua and Heʻeia in the district of Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu
  • (Ka Loko o) Kawainui: Name of a fishpond in Kailua where the lepo ʻai ʻia was found, currently referred to as “Kawainui Marsh”
  • Kailua: An ahupuaʻa between Kāneʻohe and Waimānalo in the district of Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu

Moʻolelo: Palila

Palila Olomana
Looking southeast toward Mt. Olomana. Tai Sing Loo, c. 1925. Bishop Mus. Photo Coll.
As cited in Kelly, M. & Clark, J. (1980). Kawainui Marsh, Oʻahu: Historical and Archaeological Studies. Department of Anthropology, Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum.

Summary

Palila’s mother is Mahinui and his father is Kaluaopalena. His maternal grandmother is Hina. Palila was born in Kōloa, Kauaʻi. When Palila was born, he was born as a piece of cord. So his parents discarded him on a trash heap. Hina took notice and retrieved the cord, placed it in ʻoloa, fine white kapa, and took it home. Hina took out the cord from the kapa, and then wrapped it up again. She did this three times. She then placed the cord on a shelf of ferns. Within an anahulu, ten days, the human body of Palila started to form. Palila grew large; Hina then took him to be raised at the famous heiau on Kauaʻi, Alanapō in Humuʻula. Alanapō was famous for its powerful warriors. There, Palila was taught how to be a great warrior. His grandmother also gave him a magical club, a lāʻau pālau, named Huliāmahi. With Huliāmahi, Palila flies to Oʻahu. There he meets the Oʻahu chief ʻĀhuapau. ʻĀhuapau is afraid of the great giant Olomana. He was so afraid of the giant; he would not travel from Makapuʻu to Kalaeokaʻōʻio near Kualoa. This whole Koʻolaupoko area was kapu to Olomana. Wanting Palila to encounter Olomana, ʻĀhuapau tells Palila to travel around the entire island of Oʻahu. Palila asks if there will be any troublemakers along the way. At first ʻĀhuapau promises, his travels will be unobstructed. Palila is suspicious of the Oʻahu chief and warns ʻĀhuapau, “If I meet a trouble maker upon my path, I will kill him. Then I will return and kill you and all your men!”

ʻĀhuapau then changes his story and warns Palila of Olomana, the great giant of Koʻolau. Olomana was a fierce warrior, feared by all. Palila decides to challenge Olomana. With his lāʻau pālau, Huliāmahi, he flies up to Olomana’s large shoulders.

“Where are you from, you haughty child, who dares to tread upon my shoulders!? No one has stepped upon my shoulders before!”

“I am Palila! I am from Kauaʻi, raised at Alanapō, the temple of the gods!”

Just by hearing the name of the infamous heiau, great freight enters Olomana. “No! Please do not kill me! Let me live!” pleaded Olomana.

“I shall kill you, and you shall die because you have done many evil deeds,” promises Palila. Palila then slices off the head of Olomana with Huliāmahi and Olomana’s head flies off and lands all the way in the ocean. That piece that landed in the sea is known as Mahinui. This is why Olomana is left jagged, and that is how the great giant Olomana, was defeated.

This story teaches us the importance of being truthful and that evildoers will meet their match in the end.

Sources

Inquiry Questions

  1. What is significant about the relationship between Hina and Palila in this moʻolelo? How did they demonstrate aloha for one another? What does this teach us?
  2. How did Palila’s upbringing help to prepare him for what he faced later in life?
  3. How did Olomana treat the kanaka on Oʻahu? Did he demonstrate aloha for those around him? What happened to him in the end?
  4. What life lessons might we learn from this moʻolelo? How might it connect with our ʻōlelo noʻeau?

Vocabulary

  • Moʻolelo: History, story
  • ʻOloa: a type of fine, white bark cloth
  • Kapa: a general term for bark cloth
  • Anahulu: 10 days, a measurement of time in the traditional Hawaiian moon calendar. There are three anahulu for every lunar month.
  • Heiau: a structure of worship, similar to a shrine
  • Lāʻau pālau: club
  • Kapu: restrictions

Inoa ʻĀina (Wind, Rain, & Place Names)

  • Kōloa: Ahupuaʻa on the island of Kauaʻi; Palila’s birthplace
  • Alanapō: Famous heiau in Humuʻula, Kauaʻi
  • Humuʻula: Area on Kauaʻi where Alanapō heiau is located
  • Makapuʻu: Area of Waimānalo, Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu near Kona, Oʻahu
  • Kalaeokaʻōʻio: Area near Kualoa, Oʻahu
  • Kualoa: Land division in Koʻolau, Oʻahu; considered one of the most sacred places on the island
  • Olomana: The largest peak closest to Kailua; A giant and fierce warrior who was greatly feared

Haʻawina (Life Lessons)

Hoʻolohe i nā kūpuna (Obedience to elders)

  • Palila was completely dependent on his grandmother Hina, whereas she revived him from his initial cord state. It was Hina who took him to Alanapō to be trained. Had Palila not obeyed his grandmother’s wisdom, he would not have been so successful.

E koa (Be brave and courageous)

  • Palila had to be courageous to face the dreaded Olomana. He also had to be witty and think on his feet as ‘Āhuapau initially lied to him.

Content on this page was written and compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone

Moʻolelo: No Ka ʻīlio Moʻo

No-ka-ilio-moo
Avelino, K. and Furchgott, E. (2008). No Ka ʻĪlio Moʻo. Hale Kuamoʻo

Summary

One day, Queen Kaʻahumanu was craving ʻīlio kālua and poi lehua. Her messenger brings her request before the premier dog breeder and kalo farmer of the island of Oʻahu, Kanakaliʻiliʻi and Kanakaʻole of Maunawili, in the uplands of Kailua.

As they are bringing the food for Kaʻahumanu to Kaʻaukuʻu in Honolulu the next day, they get suddenly stopped upon their path. A moʻo wahine called out to them asking them where they were going. The dog, previously cooked the night before, is suddenly alive again and answers the moʻo wahine. As this startles the farmers, they throw their food aside and flee for Honolulu. The dog joins the moʻo wahine, named Pāʻē.

The farmers tell Kaʻahumanu of these amazing events and Kaʻahumanu forgives the farmers for having no food for her. This story becomes famous among the chiefly circles and eventually leads to the popular, modern myth that we cannot bring pork over the Pali, lest we encounter problems on our journey.

This story reminds us of the great abundance and high-quality food that is able to be grown in Maunawili. Whereas Maunawili was a place to supply not only royalty with food but also travelers coming to or from Honolulu. Maunawili was known as a “breadbasket” of the Koʻolau district, one of the foremost places to grow food, especially kalo. This moʻolelo is also a reminder for us of the values of mercy, forgiveness, and truthfulness.

Ka Nūpepa Kūʻokoʻa
15 Oct 1925, pg. 5
By Mr. Geo. Poʻoloa

He Hoʻoulu Poko

I kekahi lā, e ʻono ana ka mōʻī wahine ʻo Kaʻahumanu i ka ʻīlio kālua a me ka poi lehua. Na kāna ʻelele a lawelawe aku i kāna kauoha a i ka mea hānai ʻīlio a me ka mahiʻai maikaʻi ʻoi loa. ʻO Kanakaliʻiliʻi lāua ʻo Kanakaʻole ia ma Maunawili, ma ka uka o Kailua.

Mākaukau ka ʻai. Aia nō nā mahiʻai i ka nuku o Nuʻuanu e lawelawe aku nei i ka mea ʻai no ka mōʻī wahine. ʻŌʻili wale mai kekahi wahine ʻeʻepa i mua o lāua nei. Kāhea aku ia wahine nei i nā mahiʻai, “E hele ana ʻoukou i hea?”

Pane mai ka ʻīlio mai loko mai o ka ʻumeke, i pau ʻē i ke kālua ʻia i ia pō aku nei, “E hele ana mākou i ka ʻauwē ʻāina o lākou nei!” Kāhāhā wale aʻe nā mahiʻai, a ʻo ke kiola akula nō ia i nā ʻumeke, a ʻo ka ʻauheʻe aʻela nō ia no Kaʻaukuʻu ma Honolulu, kahi o ka mōʻīwahine mā. Hui pū ia ʻīlio moʻo me ka wahine ʻeʻepa e noho pū ai.

Haʻi aku ʻo Kanakaliʻiliʻi lāua ʻo Kanakaʻole i kēia mau hana kupanaha ʻoiaʻiʻo iō Kaʻahumanu, me ka leo mihi i ka nele i ka ʻaina no ka lani. Kala aku ua lani la iā lāua nei.

Hele a kaulana loa kēia moʻolelo i waena o nā aliʻi. A lilo kēia moʻolelo i ka moʻolelo laha o kēia mau lā, mai lawe aku i ka puaʻa ma luna o ka nuku o Nuʻuanu, o pōpilikia auaneʻi. Eia naʻe, he ʻīlio nō ia.

He wahi moʻolelo nō kēia no ka ʻāina momona lua ʻole o Maunawili nei. ʻOiai, he wahi ia e hoʻolako aku ana i nā aliʻi i ka ʻai. A he wahi moʻolelo nō hoʻi kēia no ke koʻikoʻi o ka haʻi ʻoiaʻiʻo, ke kala, a me ka mihi.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa
15 Oka 1925, aoao 5
Na Mr. Geo. Pooloa

Sources

Inquiry Questions

  1. If Kaʻahumanu sent messengers all the way over to Kailua to get food, what does this moʻolelo teach us about the ʻai (food/kalo) and ʻāina in Kailua?
  2. Based on the moʻolelo, what do we learn about the ʻāina in Kailua? Was it momona? How can we tell? What would it take to get the ʻāina back to this state?
  3. What life lessons might we learn from this moʻolelo? How might it connect with our ʻōlelo noʻeau?

Vocabulary

  • Moʻolelo: History, story
  • Aliʻi: Royalty
  • Ili kūpono: Land district within the ahupuaʻa that reports directly to the aliʻi and not the konohiki
  • ʻĪlio kālua: Dog baked in an underground oven- imu
  • Kalo lehua: Taro of the “lehua” variety
  • Mōʻī wahine: Queen
  • Moʻo wahine: Female water spirit
  • Momona: Fertility, oily, sweet, fat
  • Poi lehua: Pounded and watered down lehua taro

Inoa ʻĀina (Wind, Rain, & Place Names)

  • Konahuanui: Tallest peak of the Koʻolau mountain range
  • Maunawili: Land area in the uplands of the ahupuaʻa of Kailua
  • Nuku o Nuʻuanu: Mountain pass of Nuʻuanu, referred to today simply as “the Pali”

Haʻawina (Life Lessons)

ʻO ka hoʻolohe ʻana i ke aliʻi (Obedience to superiors)

  • ʻO ia hoʻi ke koʻikoʻi o ka hoʻokō ʻana aku i nā kauoha o nā kānaka kūlana kiʻekiʻe e like me ke aliʻi, ka mōʻī wahine, nā kūpuna, mākua a nā kumu paha.
  • (It is important to fulfill commands of superiors, like royalty, elders, parents, and teachers.)

ʻO ka haʻi ʻana i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo (Telling the truth)

  • I loko o ka pakele ʻana aku a ka ʻīlio moʻo mai ka umeke mai, mau nō ka huakaʻi ʻana aku a Kanakaliʻiliʻi lāua ʻo Kanakaʻole a mua o ka mōʻī wahine, a mua o Kaʻahumanu a me ka haʻi ʻana aku iā ia i ka moʻolelo ʻoiaʻiʻo.
  • (Despite the escape of the ʻīlio moʻo from the calabash, Kanakaliʻi and Kanakaʻole still travel to the queen, Kaʻahumanu and tell her the truth.)

ʻO ka mihi a me ke kala (Repentance and forgiveness)

  • I kā Kaʻahumanu lohe ʻana mai i ka moʻolelo a Kanakaliʻiliʻi mā, a me kā lāua mihi ʻana aku, kala aku ka mōʻī wahine iā lāua ala. No laila, he hōʻailona nō kēnā i ka loko maikaʻi ona i nā kānaka haʻi ʻoiaʻiʻo.
  • (As Kaʻahumanu heard Kanakaliʻiliʻi and Kanakaʻole’s story and their repentance, she forgives them. This is a testament to the mercy that is shown to those who speak truthfully.)

ʻO ka momona o ka ʻāina (The fertility of the land)

  • ʻO ka momona o ka ʻāina, aia nō i ka hoʻoulu ʻana mai a ke kānaka. He kuleana kā kākou i ka mahiʻai ʻana i ka ʻāina. No ka mea, he mea ia e mauliola hou aku ai kākou a pau.
  • (It is up to us as people to farm the land/ocean and reap her fruits. We have a responsibility to grow our own food. And when we do this, we see everything flourish once again.)

Content on this page was written and compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone

Moʻolelo: Mākālei

Makalei
KAWAINUI POND AND WET-LAND CULTIVATION SEEN FROM THE “NEW PALI ROAD.”
Photo by Brother Bertram, ca. 1898. Hawaiʻi State Archives, Brother Bertram Coll.
As cited in: Kelly, M. & Clark, J. (1980). Kawainui March, Oʻahu: Historical and Archaelogical Studies. Department of Anthropology, Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum.

Summary

In the story of Mākālei ka lāʻau piʻi ona a ka iʻa o Moaʻulanuiākea i Kaulana (the famous fish-attracting branch of Moaʻulanuiākea), Olomana, sometimes spelled Olopana, is the ruling chief of the Koʻolaupoko and Koʻolauloa districts of Oʻahu. His punahele and konohiki for Kailua and Waimānalo is Ahiki, a very good-hearted, handsome and beloved ruler. Ahiki establishes Pākuʻi as the kahu loko, keeper of Kawainui and Kaʻelepulu fishponds. It is Pākuʻi who supplies the chiefs with fish from these fishponds. Kailua was a very valued place of the chiefs because of the abundance of fish in Kawainui and Kaʻelepulu. It was said, these ponds were the place to “fill your bags [with fish].” At times, there were so many fish; they could be grabbed with just your hand.

One day Ahiki orders Pākuʻi to retrieve fish from Kawainui and Kaʻelepulu. Pākuʻi goes the very next day with his two helpers, Nuhi and Nihiʻole to fulfill the orders of his konohiki, Ahiki. The three fishermen are only able to retrieve 3 ʻanae and 3 awa despite there being huge numbers of fish in the fishponds. Pākuʻi reports to Ahiki that he thinks they were only able to retrieve a small number of fish because there is too much limu and it needs to be cleaned out.               

Ahiki then announces a workday in Kawainui for all those of Kailua and Waimānalo who are willing to work. As a result of everyone’s collective efforts, the limu is removed and the fishpond is restored to full health. They are now able to access the abundance of fish in the pond.

One of those who came to work was a small, young boy named Kahinihiniʻula. He lived in Makawao, in the uplands of Maunawili. At the end of the workday, everyone who participated received a hoʻina, some fish to take home, everyone except Kahinihiniʻula. He was so small the kahu loko did not notice him. This happened for two workdays, and Nīʻula, Kahinihiniʻula’s grandmother became very upset. She is the guardian of ka lāʻau Mākālei, the fish-attracting branch, and she is also a descendant of Haumea. With the Mākālei branch, she summons Haumea to take revenge upon the chief Olomana, because it is ultimately his responsibility to make sure everyone has enough and is cared for. And it was the kahu loko of his favorite konohiki, who failed to give Kahinihiniʻula his fair share of fish at the end of the workdays. Therefore, even though Olomana and his retinue neglected the small boy unintentionally, they are still held responsible.

The grandmother, Nīʻula, then instructs Kahinihiniʻula to lead all the fish out of Kawainui fishpond, with the Mākālei branch, through the Maunawili stream, and into the spring at their house, Hālauwai.

With all the fish of Kawainui suddenly missing, Ahiki, Pākuʻi, Nuhi, and Nihiʻole appear before Olomana to appeal to him. They show him that there is no fish, so Olomana then summons his kahuna, Pōpolo. The kahuna, Pōpolo, looks into his kāhoaka, a container of water, and asks the why the fish have been taken away from Kawainui.In the kāhoaka the face of Kahinihiniʻula is revealed. The kahuna then interprets these signs.

“It is because of this boy that the fish have been taken away from the loko. It would be proper to have him killed,” suggested Pōpolo.

“No, I shall not have him killed,” said Olomana. “Instead I shall adopt him as my son, and you shall raise him with me, Ahiki. We shall be his parents.”

Ahiki spends the rest of the story looking for Kahinihiniʻula, only for the young boy to evade capture, as he was under the protection of his kumu honua, his ancient ancestor, Haumea. Haumea then sends Kahinihiniʻula to play friends to teach him how to swim, surf, and dive. With his play friends, Kahinihiniʻula travels through the ocean to Kānehūnāmoku, the land of the gods and appears before Kāne and Lono. Kahinihiniʻula eats with the gods and, with the help of Haumea, earns their favor by not falling for the tricks they try to play on him.

As Kahinihiniʻula returns from Kānehūnāmoku, his status is now elevated as he followed the directions of Haumea and won over the favor of Kāne and Lono. They instructed him to build a heiau at Hanauma. With the help of his kumu honua, he builds his heiau and later appears before Ahiki and Olomana as they are bathing at their kiʻowai, their inland pool. Kahinihiniʻula is formally accepted into the chiefly circle with his new adopted parents, Olomana and Ahiki.

This story teaches us very important values. The first and foremost value is that everyone needs to be taken care of. This is the impetus for the entire tale. Olomana was held responsible by the amazing goddess Haumea, for neglecting her descendant.

This is also a story about the wondrous acts of Haumea herself, and how if we follow the directions of our elders, we will be able to do many good deeds in the world. This story also reminds us that we can elevate our status by gaining knowledge, as Kahinihiniʻula did with his play friends. It is also interesting to note that Olomana defied Pōpolo’s suggestion to kill Kahinihiniʻula and instead decides to take him as his own in adoption, a very Hawaiian tradition.

Sources

Inquiry Questions

  1. In the moʻolelo of Mākālei, what was Kawainui? Did people gather food there? How does this compare with Kawainui today?
  2. What did the people of Waimānalo and Kailua do in order to mālama (care for) Kawainui fishpond? Why did they do this? What were they able to accomplish?
  3. In the moʻolelo of Mākālei, what happened to Kahinihiniʻula? How was he treated? What was the result of this?
  4. What was Olomana’s reaction once he realized what had happened to Kahinihiniʻula? Did he agree or disagree with his kahuna? What did Olomana do instead?
  5. In what ways do the characters in this moʻolelo express aloha for one another? In what ways do they fail to do so?
  6. What does this moʻolelo teach us about the importance of respect and valuing all members of the ʻohana and community?
  7. Based on the moʻolelo, would you consider Kailua to be momona (a place of abundance)? Why or why not? 
  8. What can we learn from the moʻolelo about how to cultivate and steward abundance?
  9. What life lessons might we learn from this moʻolelo? How might it connect with our ʻōlelo noʻeau?

Vocabulary

  • Moʻolelo: History, story
  • Punahele: favorite
  • Konohiki: ruler of the ahupuaʻa, reports to the aliʻi
  • Lāʻau: stick, branch, medicine
  • Aliʻi: chief
  • Iʻa: fish
  • Loko: pond
  • Kumuhonua: very ancient ancestor
  • Keiki: child
  • Moʻopuna: grandchild
  • Tūtū Wahine/Kupunahine: grandmother
  • Kiʻowai: inland pool
  • Akua Wahine: goddess
  • Kahuna: priest
  • Kāula: priestess
  • Limu: seaweed
  • Kahu loko: keeper of the fishpond
  • Hoʻina: food to take home
  • Kāhoaka: in this story, a cup of water that is prayed over to reveal signs
  • Pō: night, the spirit world

Inoa ʻĀina (Wind, Rain, & Place Names)

  • Koʻolaupoko: From Waimānalo to Kualoa
  • Koʻolauloa: From Kaʻaʻawa to Pūpūkea
  • Kawainui: Name of a fishpond in Kailua, currently referred to as “Kawainui Marsh”
  • Kaʻelepulu: Name of a fishpond in Kailua, currently referred to as “Enchanted Lake”
  • Maunawili: Land division in Kailua, Oʻahu
  • Makawao: Area in the uplands of Maunawili
  • Hālauwai: Name of the spring at Kahinihiniʻula’s house in Makawao in the uplands of Maunawili
  • Olomana: The largest peak closest to Kailua; Chief of Koʻolaupoko and Koʻolauloa
  • Ahiki: The peak closest to Waimānalo; Konohiki of Kailua and Waimānalo
  • Pākuʻi: The middle peak; Kahu loko of Kawainui and Kaʻelepulu
  • Kānēhūnāmoku: Land of the gods where Kahinihiniʻula travels 

Haʻawina (Life Lessons)

Nānā ʻia nā kānaka a pau (Everyone is cared for)

  • The whole impetus for the story of Mākālei is that one person who worked on a workday did not get their fair share of fish. Because of this happening two times, the family of this boy is offended and calls for revenge. This is the standard by which to hold ourselves, our leaders, and our entire community. Everyone who works shall be fed.

Hoʻolohe i nā kūpuna (Obedience to elders)

  • Kahinihiniʻula is led upon this amazing journey by his grandmother and ancient ancestor. He could not have thought this plan up himself. He must be humble, obey, and follow directions. This is how he meets success on his journey and finds himself respected in the circle of chiefs.

Hoʻonui ʻIke (Gaining knowledge)

  • In order for Kahinihiniʻula to be able to travel to the land of the gods, the land not seen by humans, he must gain some skills. He is taught how to swim, surf, and dive. For it is over, through and within the ocean which Kahinihiniʻula and his two companions travel to “tread upon the chest of Kāne,” the beautiful, magical, and abundant land where Kāne and Lono live.

Ke Keiki Hoʻokama (Foster Child)

  • When faced with the kahuna telling him to kill Kahinihiniʻula, Olomana instead decides to adopt him, take him as his own. In this example we see the choice of taking away life, or creating new life with new relationships. This example teaches us the value of choosing to embrace something or a situation rather than try to destroy it.

Content on this page was written and compiled by Johanna Kapōmaikaʻi Stone

Moʻolelo: Mai Hoopalaleha I Ke Kanu Kalo

BishopMuseumArchives-MAI-HOOPALALEHA-I-KE-KANU-KALO
Rice fields, Maunawili. Tai Sing Loo. 1925. Bishop Museum Archives Photo Collection.
**By the time this photo was taken in 1925, rice had replaced the kalo that was formerly cultivated in this area.

Mai Hoopalaleha I Ke Kanu Kalo
Do Not Neglect Planting Taro

Kuokoa Home Rule, Buke IX, Helu 33, 18 August 1911

Summary

This article was published in the Hawaiian language newspaper, Kuokoa Home Rule, on August 8, 1911. In it, the author speaks to the transition of land use in Honolulu, as many of the loʻi kalo were beginning to dry out. The author, unnamed, warns that nearly three hundred acres of Honolulu’s kalo lands, at the time in cultivation, will soon no longer be planted. In the end, the reader is called to action:

“Nolaila, e na Hawaii mai paupauaho oukou no ke kanu kalo, a mai hoopalaleha ia hana mikiala o ka aina.”

“Therefore, to the people of Hawai’i, do not lose enthusiasm for planting kalo, and do not neglect this lively industry of the land.”

Translated by Kahanuola Tabor, Reviewed by Puakea Nogelmeier

Sources

Inquiry Questions

  1. What is the author urging readers to do? What is the underlying fear?
  2. Where was this taking place? What was that area like at the time this article was written?
  3. What is this area like today? Are there hundreds of acres of loʻi kalo there today? Currently, do we see many people working this ʻāina? Is it producing food? Why and how do you think this transition took place?
  4. How do you think this author would react to seeing this ʻāina today? What might he or she do about it? 
  5. What can we do to steward this ʻāina differently?
  6. What life lessons might we learn from this moʻolelo? How might it connect with our ʻōlelo noʻeau?

Vocabulary

  • Mai: Do not
  • Hoopalaleha: Neglect; to be indifferent, idle, careless, neglectful of duty
  • Kalo: Taro
  • Loʻi / Loʻi Kalo: Wetland taro fields

Haʻawina (Life Lessons)

E mālama Hāloa, e mālama ʻāina (Care for kalo, care for ʻāina)

  • As is reflected in its title, this article is a reminder not to be negligent of our responsibility as kānaka to both care for kalo as well as ʻāina.

Moʻolelo: Keahiakahoe

keahiakahoe
Keahiakahoe, as seen from Paepae o Heʻeia. Retrieved from: http://www.pacificworlds.com/heeia/stories/images/kahoe2.jpg

Summary

This moʻolelo speaks of three siblings living in Kāneʻohe, Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu. One brother, Kahoe, was a kalo farmer, another, Pahu, a fisherman, and their sister, Loʻe, gathered iʻa (fish and other marine mammals) and limu (seaweed) along the seashore. As was the expectation of the time, they shared their resources together as an ʻohana. However, on one occasion, one of the siblings had been dishonest and withheld what should have been shared with the others. As the moʻolelo continues, this individual realizes their wrongdoing and learns a valuable lesson.

Source

Ka Moʻolelo o Keahiakahoe (Project Aloha ʻĀina – Ahupuaʻa), Pacific American Foundation, 2007.

Ka Moʻolelo o Keahiakahoe Unuhi a Hakuloli ʻia e Pelehonuamea Harman. Hale Kuamoʻo, Ka Hala ʻUla O Keʻelikōlani. Harmon, P. (2000). Ka Moʻolelo o Keahiakahoe. Hale Kuamoʻo.

Inquiry Questions

  1. In what ways did the characters in this moʻolelo express aloha for one another? In what ways did they fail to do so?
  2. How do the kuleana of the different characters in the moʻolelo reflect life on a waʻa?
  3. What life lessons might we learn from this moʻolelo? How might it connect with our ʻōlelo noʻeau?

Vocabulary

  • Moʻolelo: History, story
  • Iʻa: Fish or any marine mammal
  • Ahupuaʻa: Land division that typically went from the mountains to the sea
  • Ko kula uka, ko kula kai: Those of the upland, those of the sea; a system that allowed for an exchange of resources from the uplands and the sea
  • Mahiʻai: Farmer, planter; to farm, cultivate
  • Loʻi kalo: Wetland taro fields
  • Lawaiʻa: To fish; fisherman
  • Umu: A heap of rocks placed in the sea for small fish to hide in. This was surrounded by a net where the fish were caught.
  • Limu: Seaweed
  • Poi: Pounded taro that has been thinned with water
  • Ulua: Certain species of crevalle, jack, or pompano; an important, large game fish
  • ʻOhana: Family

Inoa ʻĀina (Wind, Rain, & Place Names)

  • Kāneʻohe: An ahupuaʻa in the district of Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu
  • Haʻikū: A valley in Kāneʻohe
  • Puʻu Pahu: A hill on the shore of Kāneʻohe Bay
  • Moku o Loʻe: An island, known today as “Coconut Island” or the Hawaiʻi Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB)

Haʻawina (Life Lessons)

E mālama kekahi i kekahi (Care for one another)

  • “Ko kula uka, ko kula kai,” the system of exchange among those of the uplands and those of the sea, reminds us of the importance of caring for one another. This exchange requires a commitment to give and share freely, which Pahu had failed to do. 

ʻO ka haʻi ʻana i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo (Telling the truth)

  • Unfortunately, in the moʻolelo, Pahu was dishonest with his ʻohana, and suffered as a result. Rather than being willing to share what he had, as Kahoe and Loʻe did, Pahu withheld from his ʻohana, and faced difficulty in a time of need. 

Moʻolelo: No Na Wahi A Na’lii E Makemake Ai E Noho I Ka Wa Kahiko Ma Ka Mokupuni O Oahu Nei

O NA WAHI A NALII
PAHUKINI HEIAU, KAOHIA, KAPAA, KAILUA, OʻAHU. Photo by Stokes, 1903. Bishop Mus. Photo Archives Coll. As cited in: Kelly, M. & Clark, J. (1980). Kawainui March, Oʻahu: Historical and Archaelogical Studies. Department of Anthropology, Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum

No Na Wahi A Na’lii E Makemake Ai E Noho I Ka Wa Kahiko Ma Ka Mokupuni O Oahu Nei
About the Places The Chiefs Enjoyed To Live In the Olden Days On The Island of Oʻahu

B. V. KALANIKUIHONOINAMOKU.
Kaualaʻa, Wailupe, Oʻahu, 24 Iulai 1865.
Ke Au Okoa, Volume I, Number 15, 31 July 1865 — Page 4

Summary

This article is from a Hawaiian language newspaper, Ke Au Okoa, and was published on July 31, 1865. In it, the author (Kalanikuihonoinamoku) describes various places chiefs lived in the days of old. In addition to descriptions of other areas, Kailua, Koʻolaupoko, Oʻahu is highlighted as a land abundant in fish and desired by the aliʻi.

Sources

Inquiry Questions

  1. What do we notice about the descriptions of ʻāina here in this moʻolelo? Do you recognize these place names? What are these places like today? 
  2. Based on the moʻolelo, what do we learn about the ʻāina in Kailua? Was it momona? How can we tell?
  3. What would it take to get the ʻāina back to this state?
  4. What life lessons might we learn from this moʻolelo? How might it connect with our ʻōlelo noʻeau?

Vocabulary

  • Moʻolelo: History, story
  • Piko: Umbilical cord
  • Mokomoko: wrestling
  • Maika ʻulu: rolling stones through pegs
  • Paheʻe ihe: Sliding spears
  • Hoʻohākākā moa: Fighting chickens
  • Ke kūkini o ke kanaka: Racing as if it was a horse race
  • Ka hula paʻi pahu: Hula with drums
  • Ka heʻenalu: surfing

Inoa ʻĀina (Wind, Rain, & Place Names)

  • Kailua: Ahupuaʻa in the moku of Koʻolaupoko
  • Koʻolaupoko: Moku (district) on Oʻahu
  • ʻĀlele: Place in Kailua desired by chief Peleiōhōlani
  • Kaiāulu: Name of wind mentioned in the description of Kailua
  • Kawainui: Name of a fishpond in Kailua, currently referred to as “Kawainui Marsh”
  • Kaʻelepulu: Name of a fishpond in Kailua, currently referred to as “Enchanted Lake”
  • Kawaihoa: A cape
  • Keawahili: An area at Kawaihoa where Kamehameha had a residence
  • Makaliʻi: Hawaiian month name
  • Wailupe: Area in the Kona district of Oʻahu
  • Kauoha: An area in Wailupe on the east end of the cliff
  • Papaalaea & Niu: Place names of Wailupe
  • Mālualua: Name of a wind mentioned in the description of Wailupe
  • Kapueo & Kepoʻonui: Large homes in Wailupe built for chiefs
  • Kamanuʻena: An area mentioned in the description of Wailupe, known for firm sweet potato and large heiau
  • Hōliʻo: Name of rain mentioned in the description of Wailupe
  • Kaualua: Place on the western end of Wailupe, contains large pond enjoyed by chiefs
  • Waiʻalae: Area in the Kona district of Oʻahu
  • Kaluaʻonou: Area in Waiʻalae favored by chiefs
  • Waikīkī-kai: A part of an ahupuaʻa in the Kona district of Oʻahu
  • Moanalua: Ahupuaʻa in Kona, Oʻahu
  • Kānalua: A favored place of the chiefs in Moanalua
  • Kaloaloa & Māpunapuna: Areas of Moanalua, Kona, Oʻahu
  • Kūkaniloko: Place where chiefs would return to give birth and to leave their umbilical cord

Haʻawina (Life Lessons)

He mana kō nā inoa ʻāina a me nā moʻolelo o ka ʻāina (The names and stories/history of the land are powerful)

  • Throughout the article, the author shares the names and stories of various places on Oʻahu emphasizing their importance and reminding the reader of our need to remember and continue to share them.
Hookuaaina Rebuilding Lives From The Ground Up

Hoʻokuaʻāina is located in the ahupuaʻa of Kailua at Kapalai in Maunawili on the island of Oʻahu. Get Directions.

For more information about our programs or how you can get involved please contact us.

916E Auloa Rd.

Kailua, HI 96734

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P.O. Box 342146

Kailua, HI 96734

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Hookuaaina Rebuilding Lives From The Ground Up

Hoʻokuaʻāina is located in the ahupuaʻa of Kailua at Kapalai in Maunawili on the island of Oʻahu.

For more information about our programs or how you can get involved please contact us.

visit us

916E Auloa Rd.

Kailua, HI 96734

mail us

P.O. Box 342146

Kailua, HI 96734

email us

follow us

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Hoʻokuaʻāina is a 501c3 Non-Profit Organization

© Hoʻokuaʻāina 2020 All Rights Reserved | Terms & Conditions | Privacy | Site By Created By Kaui

Hoʻokuaʻāina is a 501c3 Non-Profit Organization

© Hoʻokuaʻāina 2020 All Rights Reserved | Terms & Conditions | Privacy | Site By Created By Kaui

Hoʻokuaʻāina is a 501c3 Non-Profit Organization

© Hoʻokuaʻāina 2020 All Rights Reserved | Terms & Conditions | Privacy

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